mkfs.ext3 <root
MKE2FS(8)                            System Manager's Manual                            MKE2FS(8)

NAME
       mke2fs - create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem

SYNOPSIS
       mke2fs [ -c | -l filename ] [ -b block-size ] [ -D ] [ -f fragment-size ] [ -g blocks-per-
       group ] [ -G number-of-groups ] [ -i bytes-per-inode ] [ -I inode-size ] [ -j ] [ -J jour‐
       nal-options  ]  [ -N number-of-inodes ] [ -n ] [ -m reserved-blocks-percentage ] [ -o cre‐
       ator-os ] [ -O [^]feature[,...]  ] [ -q ] [ -r fs-revision-level ] [ -E extended-options ]
       [ -v ] [ -F ] [ -L volume-label ] [ -M last-mounted-directory ] [ -S ] [ -t fs-type ] [ -T
       usage-type ] [ -U UUID ] [ -V ] device [ fs-size ]

       mke2fs -O journal_dev [ -b block-size ] [ -L volume-label ] [ -n ] [ -q ] [ -v ] external-
       journal [ fs-size ]

DESCRIPTION
       mke2fs  is  used  to create an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem, usually in a disk partition
       (or file) named by device.

       The file system size is specified by fs-size.  If fs-size does not have a  suffix,  it  is
       interpreted  as  power-of-two  kilobytes,  unless the -b blocksize option is specified, in
       which case fs-size is interpreted as the number of blocksize blocks.   If the  fs-size  is
       suffixed  by  'k', 'm', 'g', 't' (either upper-case or lower-case), then it is interpreted
       in power-of-two kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, etc.  If fs-size  is  omitted,
       mke2fs will create the file system based on the device size.

       If  mke2fs is run as mkfs.XXX (i.e., mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, or mkfs.ext4) the option -t XXX
       is implied; so mkfs.ext3 will create a file system for use with ext3, mkfs.ext4 will  cre‐
       ate a file system for use with ext4, and so on.

       The  defaults of the parameters for the newly created filesystem, if not overridden by the
       options listed below, are controlled by the /etc/mke2fs.conf configuration file.  See  the
       mke2fs.conf(5) manual page for more details.

OPTIONS
       -b block-size
              Specify  the  size  of blocks in bytes.  Valid block-size values are 1024, 2048 and
              4096 bytes per block.  If omitted, block-size is heuristically  determined  by  the
              filesystem  size  and the expected usage of the filesystem (see the -T option).  If
              block-size is preceded by a negative sign ('-'), then mke2fs will use heuristics to
              determine  the appropriate block size, with the constraint that the block size will
              be at least block-size bytes.  This is useful for certain  hardware  devices  which
              require that the blocksize be a multiple of 2k.

       -c     Check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system.  If this option is
              specified twice, then a slower read-write test is used instead of a fast  read-only
              test.

       -C  cluster-size
              Specify  the  size  of cluster in bytes for filesystems using the bigalloc feature.
              Valid cluster-size values are from 2048 to 256M bytes per cluster.  This  can  only
              be  specified  if  the bigalloc feature is enabled.  (See the ext4 (5) man page for
              more details about bigalloc.)   The default cluster size if bigalloc is enabled  is
              16 times the block size.

       -D     Use direct I/O when writing to the disk.  This avoids mke2fs dirtying a lot of buf‐
              fer cache memory, which may impact other applications running  on  a  busy  server.
              This  option  will  cause  mke2fs  to  run much more slowly, however, so there is a
              tradeoff to using direct I/O.

       -E extended-options
              Set extended options for the filesystem.  Extended options are comma separated, and
              may  take  an argument using the equals ('=') sign.  The -E option used to be -R in
              earlier versions of mke2fs.  The -R option is still accepted for backwards compati‐
              bility, but is deprecated.  The following extended options are supported:

                   mmp_update_interval=interval
                          Adjust the initial MMP update interval to interval seconds.  Specifying
                          an interval of 0 means to use  the  default  interval.   The  specified
                          interval  must be less than 300 seconds.  Requires that the mmp feature
                          be enabled.

                   stride=stride-size
                          Configure the filesystem for a RAID array with  stride-size  filesystem
                          blocks.  This  is  the  number of blocks read or written to disk before
                          moving to the next disk, which is sometimes referred to  as  the  chunk
                          size.   This  mostly affects placement of filesystem metadata like bit‐
                          maps at mke2fs time to avoid placing them on a single disk,  which  can
                          hurt performance.  It may also be used by the block allocator.

                   stripe_width=stripe-width
                          Configure  the filesystem for a RAID array with stripe-width filesystem
                          blocks per stripe. This is typically stride-size * N, where  N  is  the
                          number  of data-bearing disks in the RAID (e.g. for RAID 5 there is one
                          parity disk, so N will be the number of disks in the  array  minus  1).
                          This  allows  the  block  allocator to prevent read-modify-write of the
                          parity in a RAID stripe if possible when the data is written.

                   offset=offset
                          Create the filesystem at an offset from the beginning of the device  or
                          file.   This  can  be  useful  when  creating  disk  images for virtual
                          machines.

                   resize=max-online-resize
                          Reserve enough space so that the block group descriptor table can  grow
                          to support a filesystem that has max-online-resize blocks.

                   lazy_itable_init[= <0 to disable, 1 to enable>]
                          If  enabled  and the uninit_bg feature is enabled, the inode table will
                          not be fully initialized by mke2fs.  This speeds up filesystem initial‐
                          ization  noticeably,  but it requires the kernel to finish initializing
                          the filesystem in the background when the filesystem is first  mounted.
                          If  the  option value is omitted, it defaults to 1 to enable lazy inode
                          table zeroing.

                   lazy_journal_init[= <0 to disable, 1 to enable>]
                          If enabled, the journal inode will not be fully zeroed out  by  mke2fs.
                          This  speeds  up filesystem initialization noticeably, but carries some
                          small risk if the system crashes before the journal has been  overwrit‐
                          ten  entirely one time.  If the option value is omitted, it defaults to
                          1 to enable lazy journal inode zeroing.

                   num_backup_sb=<0|1|2>
                          If the sparse_super2 file system feature is enabled  this  option  con‐
                          trols  whether  there  will be 0, 1, or 2 backup superblocks created in
                          the file system.

                   packed_meta_blocks[= <0 to disable, 1 to enable>]
                          Place the allocation bitmaps and the inode table at  the  beginning  of
                          the disk.  This option requires that the flex_bg file system feature to
                          be enabled in order for it to have effect, and  will  also  create  the
                          journal at the beginning of the file system.  This option is useful for
                          flash devices that use SLC flash at the beginning of the disk.  It also
                          maximizes  the range of contiguous data blocks, which can be useful for
                          certain specialized use cases, such as supported Shingled Drives.

                   root_owner[=uid:gid]
                          Specify the numeric user and group ID of the  root  directory.   If  no
                          UID:GID  is  specified,  use  the user and group ID of the user running
                          mke2fs.  In mke2fs 1.42 and earlier the UID and GID of the root  direc‐
                          tory  were  set  by  default to the UID and GID of the user running the
                          mke2fs command.  The root_owner= option  allows  explicitly  specifying
                          these  values,  and avoid side-effects for users that do not expect the
                          contents of the filesystem to change based on the user running mke2fs.

                   test_fs
                          Set a flag in the filesystem  superblock  indicating  that  it  may  be
                          mounted using experimental kernel code, such as the ext4dev filesystem.

                   discard
                          Attempt  to discard blocks at mkfs time (discarding blocks initially is
                          useful on solid state devices and sparse /  thin-provisioned  storage).
                          When  the  device  advertises that discard also zeroes data (any subse‐
                          quent read after the discard and before write returns zero), then  mark
                          all not-yet-zeroed inode tables as zeroed. This significantly speeds up
                          filesystem initialization. This is set as default.

                   nodiscard
                          Do not attempt to discard blocks at mkfs time.

                   quotatype
                          Specify which quota type ('usr' or 'grp') is to  be  initialized.  This
                          option  has  effect  only  if  the  quota  feature is set. Without this
                          extended option, the default behavior is to initialize  both  user  and
                          group quotas.

       -f fragment-size
              Specify the size of fragments in bytes.

       -F     Force  mke2fs  to create a filesystem, even if the specified device is not a parti‐
              tion on a block special device, or if other parameters do not make sense.  In order
              to  force mke2fs to create a filesystem even if the filesystem appears to be in use
              or is mounted (a truly dangerous thing to do), this option must be specified twice.

       -g blocks-per-group
              Specify the number of blocks in a block group.  There is generally  no  reason  for
              the  user to ever set this parameter, as the default is optimal for the filesystem.
              (For administrators who are creating filesystems on RAID arrays, it  is  preferable
              to  use the stride RAID parameter as part of the -E option rather than manipulating
              the number of blocks per group.)  This option is generally used by  developers  who
              are developing test cases.

              If  the bigalloc feature is enabled, the -g option will specify the number of clus‐
              ters in a block group.

       -G number-of-groups
              Specify the number of block groups that will be packed together to create a  larger
              virtual  block  group  (or  "flex_bg  group") in an ext4 filesystem.  This improves
              meta-data locality and performance on meta-data heavy  workloads.   The  number  of
              groups  must  be  a  power of 2 and may only be specified if the flex_bg filesystem
              feature is enabled.

       -i bytes-per-inode
              Specify the bytes/inode ratio.  mke2fs creates an inode for  every  bytes-per-inode
              bytes of space on the disk.  The larger the bytes-per-inode ratio, the fewer inodes
              will be created.  This value generally shouldn't be smaller than the  blocksize  of
              the filesystem, since in that case more inodes would be made than can ever be used.
              Be warned that it is not possible to change this ratio on a filesystem after it  is
              created,  so  be  careful deciding the correct value for this parameter.  Note that
              resizing a filesystem changes the numer of inodes to maintain this ratio.

       -I inode-size
              Specify the size of each inode in bytes.  The inode-size value must be a power of 2
              larger  or  equal to 128.  The larger the inode-size the more space the inode table
              will consume, and this reduces the usable space in the filesystem and can also neg‐
              atively  impact  performance.   It  is  not possible to change this value after the
              filesystem is created.

              In kernels after 2.6.10 and some earlier vendor kernels it is possible  to  utilize
              inodes larger than 128 bytes to store extended attributes for improved performance.
              Extended attributes stored in large inodes are not visible with older kernels,  and
              such filesystems will not be mountable with 2.4 kernels at all.

              The  default  inode  size  is  controlled  by  the  mke2fs.conf(5)  file.   In  the
              mke2fs.conf file shipped with e2fsprogs, the default inode size is  256  bytes  for
              most  file  systems, except for small file systems where the inode size will be 128
              bytes.

       -j     Create the filesystem with an ext3 journal.  If the -J option is not specified, the
              default  journal  parameters  will be used to create an appropriately sized journal
              (given the size of the filesystem) stored within the  filesystem.   Note  that  you
              must  be using a kernel which has ext3 support in order to actually make use of the
              journal.

       -J journal-options
              Create the ext3 journal using  options  specified  on  the  command-line.   Journal
              options are comma separated, and may take an argument using the equals ('=')  sign.
              The following journal options are supported:

                   size=journal-size
                          Create an internal journal (i.e., stored inside the filesystem) of size
                          journal-size  megabytes.  The size of the journal must be at least 1024
                          filesystem blocks (i.e., 1MB if  using  1k  blocks,  4MB  if  using  4k
                          blocks,  etc.)  and may be no more than 10,240,000 filesystem blocks or
                          half the total file system size (whichever is smaller)

                   location=journal-location
                          Specify the location of the journal.  The argument journal-location can
                          either  be  specified  as  a block number, or if the number has a units
                          suffix (e.g., 'M', 'G', etc.) interpret  it  as  the  offset  from  the
                          beginning of the file system.

                   device=external-journal
                          Attach  the filesystem to the journal block device located on external-
                          journal.  The external journal must already have been created using the
                          command

                          mke2fs -O journal_dev external-journal

                          Note  that  external-journal must have been created with the same block
                          size as the new filesystem.  In addition, while there  is  support  for
                          attaching  multiple filesystems to a single external journal, the Linux
                          kernel and e2fsck(8) do not currently support shared external  journals
                          yet.

                          Instead of specifying a device name directly, external-journal can also
                          be specified by either LABEL=label or UUID=UUID to locate the  external
                          journal  by  either  the  volume  label  or  UUID  stored  in  the ext2
                          superblock at the start of the journal.  Use dumpe2fs(8) to  display  a
                          journal  device's  volume  label  and  UUID.  See also the -L option of
                          tune2fs(8).

              Only one of the size or device options can be given for a filesystem.

       -l filename
              Read the bad blocks list from filename.  Note that the block  numbers  in  the  bad
              block  list  must  be  generated using the same block size as used by mke2fs.  As a
              result, the -c option to mke2fs is a much simpler and less  error-prone  method  of
              checking  a  disk for bad blocks before formatting it, as mke2fs will automatically
              pass the correct parameters to the badblocks program.

       -L new-volume-label
              Set the volume label for the filesystem to new-volume-label.  The maximum length of
              the volume label is 16 bytes.

       -m reserved-blocks-percentage
              Specify  the percentage of the filesystem blocks reserved for the super-user.  This
              avoids fragmentation, and allows root-owned daemons, such as  syslogd(8),  to  con‐
              tinue to function correctly after non-privileged processes are prevented from writ‐
              ing to the filesystem.  The default percentage is 5%.

       -M last-mounted-directory
              Set the last mounted directory for the filesystem.  This might be  useful  for  the
              sake of utilities that key off of the last mounted directory to determine where the
              filesystem should be mounted.

       -n     Causes mke2fs to not actually create a filesystem, but display what it would do  if
              it  were to create a filesystem.  This can be used to determine the location of the
              backup superblocks for a particular filesystem, so long as  the  mke2fs  parameters
              that  were passed when the filesystem was originally created are used again.  (With
              the -n option added, of course!)

       -N number-of-inodes
              Overrides the default calculation of the number of inodes that should  be  reserved
              for  the filesystem (which is based on the number of blocks and the bytes-per-inode
              ratio).  This allows the user to specify the number of desired inodes directly.

       -o creator-os
              Overrides the default value of the "creator operating system" field of the filesys‐
              tem.   The  creator  field  is set by default to the name of the OS the mke2fs exe‐
              cutable was compiled for.

       -O [^]feature[,...]
              Create a filesystem with the given features (filesystem  options),  overriding  the
              default filesystem options.  The features that are enabled by default are specified
              by  the  base_features  relation,  either  in  the  [defaults]   section   in   the
              /etc/mke2fs.conf configuration file, or in the [fs_types] subsections for the usage
              types as specified by the -T option, further  modified  by  the  features  relation
              found  in  the  [fs_types] subsections for the filesystem and usage types.  See the
              mke2fs.conf(5) manual page for more details.  The filesystem type-specific configu‐
              ration  setting  found  in  the [fs_types] section will override the global default
              found in [defaults].

              The filesystem feature set will be further edited  using  either  the  feature  set
              specified  by  this option, or if this option is not given, by the default_features
              relation for the filesystem type being created, or in the [defaults] section of the
              configuration file.

              The filesystem feature set is comprised of a list of features, separated by commas,
              that are to be enabled.  To disable a feature, simply prefix the feature name  with
              a  caret  ('^') character.  Features with dependencies will not be removed success‐
              fully.  The pseudo-filesystem feature "none" will clear all filesystem features.

       For more information about the features which can be set, please see
              the manual page ext4(5).

       -q     Quiet execution.  Useful if mke2fs is run in a script.

       -r revision
              Set the filesystem revision for the new filesystem.  Note  that  1.2  kernels  only
              support revision 0 filesystems.  The default is to create revision 1 filesystems.

       -S     Write  superblock  and  group  descriptors  only.   This  is  useful  if all of the
              superblock and backup superblocks are corrupted, and a last-ditch  recovery  method
              is desired.  It causes mke2fs to reinitialize the superblock and group descriptors,
              while not touching the inode table and the block and  inode  bitmaps.   The  e2fsck
              program  should be run immediately after this option is used, and there is no guar‐
              antee that any data will be salvageable.  It is critical  to  specify  the  correct
              filesystem blocksize when using this option, or there is no chance of recovery.

       -t fs-type
              Specify  the  filesystem type (i.e., ext2, ext3, ext4, etc.) that is to be created.
              If this option is not specified, mke2fs will pick a default either via how the com‐
              mand  was run (for example, using a name of the form mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, etc.) or
              via a default as defined by the /etc/mke2fs.conf file.   This option controls which
              filesystem  options  are used by default, based on the fstypes configuration stanza
              in /etc/mke2fs.conf.

              If the -O option is used to explicitly add or remove filesystem options that should
              be  set  in  the newly created filesystem, the resulting filesystem may not be sup‐
              ported by the requested fs-type.  (e.g., "mke2fs -t ext3 -O extent /dev/sdXX"  will
              create  a  filesystem  that is not supported by the ext3 implementation as found in
              the Linux kernel; and "mke2fs -t ext3 -O  ^has_journal  /dev/hdXX"  will  create  a
              filesystem that does not have a journal and hence will not be supported by the ext3
              filesystem code in the Linux kernel.)

       -T usage-type[,...]
              Specify how the filesystem is going to be used, so that mke2fs can  choose  optimal
              filesystem parameters for that use.  The usage types that are supported are defined
              in the configuration file /etc/mke2fs.conf.  The user may specify one or more usage
              types using a comma separated list.

              If  this  option  is is not specified, mke2fs will pick a single default usage type
              based on the size of the filesystem to be created.  If the filesystem size is  less
              than  3  megabytes,  mke2fs will use the filesystem type floppy.  If the filesystem
              size is greater than or equal to 3 but less than 512 megabytes, mke2fs(8) will  use
              the  filesystem  type  small.  If the filesystem size is greater than or equal to 4
              terabytes but less than 16 terabytes, mke2fs(8) will use the filesystem  type  big.
              If the filesystem size is greater than or equal to 16 terabytes, mke2fs(8) will use
              the filesystem type huge.  Otherwise, mke2fs(8) will  use  the  default  filesystem
              type default.

       -U UUID
              Create the filesystem with the specified UUID.

       -v     Verbose execution.

       -V     Print the version number of mke2fs and exit.

ENVIRONMENT
       MKE2FS_SYNC
              If  set to non-zero integer value, its value is used to determine how often sync(2)
              is called during inode table initialization.

       MKE2FS_CONFIG
              Determines the location of the configuration file (see mke2fs.conf(5)).

       MKE2FS_FIRST_META_BG
              If set to non-zero integer value, its value is used to determine first  meta  block
              group. This is mostly for debugging purposes.

       MKE2FS_DEVICE_SECTSIZE
              If  set  to  non-zero integer value, its value is used to determine physical sector
              size of the device.

       MKE2FS_SKIP_CHECK_MSG
              If set, do not show the message of filesystem automatic check caused by mount count
              or check interval.

AUTHOR
       This version of mke2fs has been written by Theodore Ts'o .

BUGS
       mke2fs  accepts  the  -f  option but currently ignores it because the second extended file
       system does not support fragments yet.
       There may be other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

AVAILABILITY
       mke2fs is part of the e2fsprogs package and  is  available  from  http://e2fsprogs.source‐
       forge.net.

SEE ALSO
       mke2fs.conf(5), badblocks(8), dumpe2fs(8), e2fsck(8), tune2fs(8), ext4(5)

E2fsprogs version 1.42.13                    May 2015                                   MKE2FS(8)

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