sed <root
SED(1)                                    User Commands                                    SED(1)

NAME
       sed - stream editor for filtering and transforming text

SYNOPSIS
       sed [OPTION]... {script-only-if-no-other-script} [input-file]...

DESCRIPTION
       Sed  is a stream editor.  A stream editor is used to perform basic text transformations on
       an input stream (a file or input from a pipeline).  While in some ways similar to an  edi‐
       tor  which permits scripted edits (such as ed), sed works by making only one pass over the
       input(s), and is consequently more efficient.  But it is sed's ability to filter text in a
       pipeline which particularly distinguishes it from other types of editors.

       -n, --quiet, --silent

              suppress automatic printing of pattern space

       -e script, --expression=script

              add the script to the commands to be executed

       -f script-file, --file=script-file

              add the contents of script-file to the commands to be executed

       --follow-symlinks

              follow symlinks when processing in place

       -i[SUFFIX], --in-place[=SUFFIX]

              edit files in place (makes backup if SUFFIX supplied)

       -l N, --line-length=N

              specify the desired line-wrap length for the `l' command

       --posix

              disable all GNU extensions.

       -r, --regexp-extended

              use extended regular expressions in the script.

       -s, --separate

              consider files as separate rather than as a single continuous long stream.

       -u, --unbuffered

              load minimal amounts of data from the input files and flush the output buffers more
              often

       -z, --null-data

              separate lines by NUL characters

       --help
              display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       If no -e, --expression, -f, or --file option is given, then the first non-option  argument
       is  taken  as  the  sed  script  to interpret.  All remaining arguments are names of input
       files; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read.

       GNU sed home page: .  General help using  GNU  software:
       .   E-mail  bug  reports  to:  .  Be sure to
       include the word ``sed'' somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.

COMMAND SYNOPSIS
       This is just a brief synopsis of sed commands to serve as a reminder to those who  already
       know  sed; other documentation (such as the texinfo document) must be consulted for fuller
       descriptions.

   Zero-address ``commands''
       : label
              Label for b and t commands.

       #comment
              The comment extends until the next newline (or the end of a -e script fragment).

       }      The closing bracket of a { } block.

   Zero- or One- address commands
       =      Print the current line number.

       a \

       text   Append text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a backslash.

       i \

       text   Insert text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a backslash.

       q [exit-code]
              Immediately quit the sed script without processing any more input, except  that  if
              auto-print  is  not  disabled  the current pattern space will be printed.  The exit
              code argument is a GNU extension.

       Q [exit-code]
              Immediately quit the sed script without processing any more input.  This is  a  GNU
              extension.

       r filename
              Append text read from filename.

       R filename
              Append a line read from filename.  Each invocation of the command reads a line from
              the file.  This is a GNU extension.

   Commands which accept address ranges
       {      Begin a block of commands (end with a }).

       b label
              Branch to label; if label is omitted, branch to end of script.

       c \

       text   Replace the selected lines with text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a
              backslash.

       d      Delete pattern space.  Start next cycle.

       D      If  pattern space contains no newline, start a normal new cycle as if the d command
              was issued.  Otherwise, delete text in the pattern space up to the  first  newline,
              and  restart  cycle with the resultant pattern space, without reading a new line of
              input.

       h H    Copy/append pattern space to hold space.

       g G    Copy/append hold space to pattern space.

       l      List out the current line in a ``visually unambiguous'' form.

       l width
              List out the current line in a ``visually unambiguous'' form, breaking it at  width
              characters.  This is a GNU extension.

       n N    Read/append the next line of input into the pattern space.

       p      Print the current pattern space.

       P      Print up to the first embedded newline of the current pattern space.

       s/regexp/replacement/
              Attempt  to  match  regexp  against the pattern space.  If successful, replace that
              portion matched with replacement.  The replacement may contain the special  charac‐
              ter  & to refer to that portion of the pattern space which matched, and the special
              escapes \1 through \9 to refer to the corresponding matching sub-expressions in the
              regexp.

       t label
              If a s/// has done a successful substitution since the last input line was read and
              since the last t or T command, then branch to label; if label is omitted, branch to
              end of script.

       T label
              If  no  s///  has done a successful substitution since the last input line was read
              and since the last t or T command, then branch  to  label;  if  label  is  omitted,
              branch to end of script.  This is a GNU extension.

       w filename
              Write the current pattern space to filename.

       W filename
              Write  the  first  line  of  the  current pattern space to filename.  This is a GNU
              extension.

       x      Exchange the contents of the hold and pattern spaces.

       y/source/dest/
              Transliterate the characters in the pattern space which appear  in  source  to  the
              corresponding character in dest.

Addresses
       Sed  commands  can  be given with no addresses, in which case the command will be executed
       for all input lines; with one address, in which case the command will only be executed for
       input  lines  which  match  that address; or with two addresses, in which case the command
       will be executed for all input lines which match the inclusive  range  of  lines  starting
       from  the  first address and continuing to the second address.  Three things to note about
       address ranges: the syntax is addr1,addr2 (i.e., the addresses are separated by a  comma);
       the  line  which  addr1  matched will always be accepted, even if addr2 selects an earlier
       line; and if addr2 is a regexp, it will not be tested against the line that addr1 matched.

       After the address (or address-range), and before the command, a !  may be inserted,  which
       specifies  that  the command shall only be executed if the address (or address-range) does
       not match.

       The following address types are supported:

       number Match only the specified line number (which increments cumulatively  across  files,
              unless the -s option is specified on the command line).

       first~step
              Match  every  step'th  line starting with line first.  For example, ``sed -n 1~2p''
              will print all the odd-numbered lines in the input stream, and the address 2~5 will
              match every fifth line, starting with the second.  first can be zero; in this case,
              sed operates as if it were equal to step.  (This is an extension.)

       $      Match the last line.

       /regexp/
              Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.

       \cregexpc
              Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.  The c may be any character.

       GNU sed also supports some special 2-address forms:

       0,addr2
              Start out in "matched first address" state, until addr2 is found.  This is  similar
              to  1,addr2,  except that if addr2 matches the very first line of input the 0,addr2
              form will be at the end of its range, whereas the 1,addr2 form will still be at the
              beginning of its range.  This works only when addr2 is a regular expression.

       addr1,+N
              Will match addr1 and the N lines following addr1.

       addr1,~N
              Will match addr1 and the lines following addr1 until the next line whose input line
              number is a multiple of N.

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       POSIX.2 BREs should be supported, but they aren't completely because of performance  prob‐
       lems.   The  \n  sequence in a regular expression matches the newline character, and simi‐
       larly for \a, \t, and other sequences.

BUGS
       E-mail bug reports to bug-sed@gnu.org.  Also, please include the output  of  ``sed  --ver‐
       sion'' in the body of your report if at all possible.

AUTHOR
       Written  by  Jay  Fenlason,  Tom Lord, Ken Pizzini, and Paolo Bonzini.  GNU sed home page:
       .      General     help     using     GNU      software:
       .   E-mail  bug  reports  to:  .  Be sure to
       include the word ``sed'' somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright © 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:  GNU  GPL  version  3  or
       later .
       This  is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), tr(1), perlre(1), sed.info, any of various books on sed, the sed
       FAQ (http://sed.sf.net/grabbag/tutorials/sedfaq.txt), http://sed.sf.net/grabbag/.

       The full documentation for sed is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and sed
       programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info sed

       should give you access to the complete manual.

sed 4.2.2                                 February 2016                                    SED(1)

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