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curl(1)                                    Curl Manual                                    curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols
       (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S,  RTMP,
       RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command is designed to work
       without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful  tricks  like  proxy  support,  user  authentication,  FTP
       upload,  HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file transfer resume, Metalink, and more. As
       you will see below, the number of features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed description in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets within braces as in:

         http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

         ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt

         ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)

         ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next to each other:

         http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be fetched in a  sequen‐
       tial manner in the specified order.

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number or letter:

         http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt

         http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       When  using  [] or {} sequences when invoked from a command line prompt, you probably have
       to put the full URL within double quotes to avoid the shell from interfering with it. This
       also goes for other characters treated special, like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide  the  IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign and the interface
       name. Like in

         http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to  guess  what  protocol
       you  might  want. It will then default to HTTP but try other protocols based on often-used
       host name prefixes. For example, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume  you
       want to speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not trying to validate it
       as a syntactically correct URL by any means but is  instead  very  liberal  with  what  it
       accepts.

       curl  will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so that getting many
       files from the same server will not do  multiple  connects  /  handshakes.  This  improves
       speed.  Of course this is only done on files specified on a single command line and cannot
       be used between separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating the amount of trans‐
       ferred data, transfer speeds and estimated time left, etc.

       curl  displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke curl to do an opera‐
       tion and it is about to write data to the terminal, it disables the progress meter as oth‐
       erwise it would mess up the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If  you  want  a  progress  meter  for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to redirect the
       response output to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o [file] or similar.

       It is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit  out  any  response
       data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your friend.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the options require an additional value next
       to them.

       The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d for example, may be used with or without a
       space  between  it  and  its  value, although a space is a recommended separator. The long
       "double-dash" form, --data for example, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that don't need any additional values can be used  immediately  next
       to  each  other, like for example you can specify all the options -O, -L and -v at once as
       -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option  and  yet  again  disabled  with
       --no-option.  That  is,  you use the exact same option name but prefix it with "no-". How‐
       ever, in this list we mostly only list and show the --option version of them.  (This  con‐
       cept with --no options was added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were toggled on/off on
       repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar instead of the  standard,  more
              informational, meter.

       -:, --next
              Tells  curl  to  use  a  separate  operation  for  the following URL and associated
              options. This allows you to send several URL requests, each with their own specific
              options,  for  example,  such  as different user names or custom requests for each.
              (Added in 7.36.0)

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead  of  using  its  internally  pre‐
              ferred: HTTP 1.1.

       --http1.1
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to use HTTP version 1.1. This is the internal default version.
              (Added in 7.33.0)

       --http2
              (HTTP) Tells curl to issue its requests using HTTP 2. This requires that the under‐
              lying libcurl was built to support it. (Added in 7.33.0)

       --no-npn
              Disable  the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default if libcurl was built with
              an SSL library that supports NPN. NPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP 2  to
              negotiate HTTP 2 support with the server during https sessions.

              (Added in 7.36.0)

       --no-alpn
              Disable  the  ALPN  TLS  extension. ALPN is enabled by default if libcurl was built
              with an SSL library that supports ALPN. ALPN is used by  a  libcurl  that  supports
              HTTP 2 to negotiate HTTP 2 support with the server during https sessions.

              (Added in 7.36.0)

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.x when negotiating with a remote TLS server.
              You can use options --tlsv1.0, --tlsv1.1, and --tlsv1.2 to control the TLS  version
              more precisely (if the SSL backend in use supports such a level of control).

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.
              Sometimes curl is built without SSLv2 support. SSLv2 is widely considered  insecure
              (see RFC 6176).

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.
              Sometimes curl is built without SSLv3 support. SSLv3 is widely considered  insecure
              (see RFC 7568).

       -4, --ipv4
              This option tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only, and not for example
              try IPv6.

       -6, --ipv6
              This option tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only, and not for example
              try IPv4.

       -a, --append
              (FTP/SFTP)  When  used  in  an  upload,  this  makes curl append to the target file
              instead of overwriting it. If the remote file doesn't exist, it  will  be  created.
              Note that this flag is ignored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A, --user-agent 
              (HTTP)  Specify  the  User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server. Some badly done
              CGIs fail if this field isn't set to "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks in the string,
              surround  the  string  with  single  quote marks. This can also be set with the -H,
              --header option of course.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself, and use  the  most
              secure one the remote site claims to support. This is done by first doing a request
              and checking the response-headers, thus possibly inducing an extra  network  round-
              trip.  This  is used instead of setting a specific authentication method, which you
              can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate.

              Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin, since it
              may  require  data  to be sent twice and then the client must be able to rewind. If
              the need should arise when uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie 
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is supposedly the data pre‐
              viously  received  from  the server in a "Set-Cookie:" line.  The data should be in
              the format "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If no '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a filename to  use  to  read
              previously  stored  cookie lines from, which should be used in this session if they
              match. Using this method also activates the cookie  engine  which  will  make  curl
              record incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in combination
              with the -L, --location option. The file format of the file to  read  cookies  from
              should be plain HTTP headers or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              The  file  specified  with  -b,  --cookie is only used as input. No cookies will be
              written to the file. To store cookies, use the -c, --cookie-jar option.

              Exercise caution if you are using this option and multiple transfers may occur.  If
              you  use the NAME1=VALUE1; format, or in a file use the Set-Cookie format and don't
              specify a domain, then the cookie is sent for any domain (even after redirects  are
              followed)  and  cannot  be modified by a server-set cookie. If the cookie engine is
              enabled and a server sets a cookie of the same name then both will  be  sent  on  a
              future  transfer  to  that  server, likely not what you intended.  To address these
              issues set a domain in Set-Cookie (doing that will include sub-domains) or use  the
              Netscape format.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -B, --use-ascii
              (FTP/LDAP)  Enable  ASCII  transfer. For FTP, this can also be enforced by using an
              URL that ends with ";type=A". This option causes data sent to stdout to be in  text
              mode for win32 systems.

       --basic
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication with the remote host. This is
              the default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use it to  override  a
              previously  set option that sets a different authentication method (such as --ntlm,
              --digest, or --negotiate).

              Used together with -u, --user and -x, --proxy.

              See also --proxy-basic.

       -c, --cookie-jar 
              (HTTP) Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies after  a  completed
              operation. Curl writes all cookies previously read from a specified file as well as
              all cookies received from remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no  data  will
              be  written. The file will be written using the Netscape cookie file format. If you
              set the file name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will be written to stdout.

              This command line option will activate the cookie engine that makes curl record and
              use cookies. Another way to activate it is to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If  the  cookie  jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl operation won't
              fail or even report an error clearly. Using -v will get a  warning  displayed,  but
              that is the only visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              Since  7.43.0  cookies that were imported in the Set-Cookie format without a domain
              name are not exported by this option.

              If this option is used several times, the last specified file name will be used.

       -C, --continue-at 
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at the given offset. The given  offset  is
              the  exact number of bytes that will be skipped, counting from the beginning of the
              source file before it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to resume the transfer.
              It then uses the given output/input files to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers 
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list  of  ciphers  must
              specify   valid  ciphers.  Read  up  on  SSL  cipher  list  details  on  this  URL:
              https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS.  The  full  list  of  NSS
              ciphers   is   in   the  NSSCipherSuite  entry  at  this  URL:  https://git.fedora‐
              hosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms curl supports, and
              save  the  uncompressed  document.   If this option is used and the server sends an
              unsupported encoding, curl will report an error.

       --connect-timeout 
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl's connection to take.  This only limits
              the  connection phase, so if curl connects within the given period it will continue
              - if not it will exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values.

              See also the -m, --max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will create the  necessary  local
              directory  hierarchy  as needed. This option creates the dirs mentioned with the -o
              option, nothing else. If the -o file name uses no dir or if the  dirs  it  mentions
              already exist, no dir will be created.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-create-dirs.

       --crlf Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

              (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

       --crlfile 
              (HTTPS/FTPS)  Provide  a  file  using PEM format with a Certificate Revocation List
              that may specify peer certificates that are to be considered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data 
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP server, in  the  same
              way that a browser does when a user has filled in an HTML form and presses the sub‐
              mit button. This will cause curl to pass the data to the server using the  content-
              type application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              -d,  --data is the same as --data-ascii. --data-raw is almost the same but does not
              have a special interpretation of the @ character. To post data purely  binary,  you
              should  instead  use  the  --data-binary option.  To URL-encode the value of a form
              field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same command line,  the  data
              pieces  specified  will  be merged together with a separating &-symbol. Thus, using
              '-d name=daniel -d skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file name to read the
              data from, or - if you want curl to read the data from stdin.  Multiple  files  can
              also  be specified. Posting data from a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with
              --data @foobar. When --data is told to read from a file like that, carriage returns
              and newlines will be stripped out. If you don't want the @ character to have a spe‐
              cial interpretation use --data-raw instead.

       -D, --dump-header 
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This option is handy to use when you want to store the headers that  an  HTTP  site
              sends  to you. Cookies from the headers could then be read in a second curl invoca‐
              tion by using the -b, --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is a better  way
              to store cookies.

              When  used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered being "headers" and
              thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --data-ascii 
              See -d, --data.

       --data-binary 
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra processing whatsoever.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a  filename.   Data  is
              posted  in a similar manner as --data-ascii does, except that newlines and carriage
              returns are preserved and conversions are never done.

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the first will append data
              as described in -d, --data.

       --data-raw 
              (HTTP)  This  posts data similarly to --data but without the special interpretation
              of the @ character. See -d, --data.  (Added in 7.43.0)

       --data-urlencode 
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with the exception that
              this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To be CGI-compliant, the  part should begin with a name followed by a separa‐
              tor and a content specification. The  part can be passed to curl using one of
              the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. Just be careful
                     so that the content doesn't contain any = or @ symbols, as  that  will  then
                     make the syntax match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. The preceding =
                     symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass that on. Note  that
                     the name part is expected to be URL-encoded already.

              @filename
                     This  will make curl load data from the given file (including any newlines),
                     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This will make curl load data from the given file (including any  newlines),
                     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST. The name part gets an equal
                     sign appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the name
                     is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
              Set  LEVEL  to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when it comes to user
              credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in the Kerberos ser‐
                     vice ticket, which is a matter of realm policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
              (HTTP)  Enables  HTTP  Digest authentication. This is an authentication scheme that
              prevents the password from being sent over the wire in clear text. Use this in com‐
              bination  with the normal -u, --user option to set user name and password. See also
              --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands when doing  active
              FTP  transfers.  Curl  will  normally  always  first attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT
              before using PORT, but with this option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT
              are  extensions  to the original FTP protocol, and may not work on all servers, but
              they enable more functionality in a better way than the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt is  an  alias  for
              --disable-eprt.

              Disabling  EPRT  only changes the active behavior. If you want to switch to passive
              mode you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the  EPSV  command  when  doing  passive  FTP
              transfers.  Curl  will  normally  always first attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but
              with this option, it will not try using EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv is  an  alias  for
              --disable-epsv.

              Disabling  EPSV  only changes the passive behavior. If you want to switch to active
              mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       --dns-interface 
              Tell curl to send outgoing DNS requests through . This option is a coun‐
              terpart  to --interface (which does not affect DNS). The supplied string must be an
              interface name (not an address).

              This option requires that libcurl was built with a resolver backend  that  supports
              this operation. The c-ares backend is the only such one. (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-ipv4-addr 
              Tell  curl  to  bind to  when making IPv4 DNS requests, so that the DNS
              requests originate from this address. The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

              This option requires that libcurl was built with a resolver backend  that  supports
              this operation. The c-ares backend is the only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-ipv6-addr 
              Tell  curl  to  bind to  when making IPv6 DNS requests, so that the DNS
              requests originate from this address. The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

              This option requires that libcurl was built with a resolver backend  that  supports
              this operation. The c-ares backend is the only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-servers 
              Set  the list of DNS servers to be used instead of the system default.  The list of
              IP addresses should be separated with commas. Port numbers may also  optionally  be
              given as : after each IP address.

              This  option  requires that libcurl was built with a resolver backend that supports
              this operation. The c-ares backend is the only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       -e, --referer 
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server. This can  also  be
              set  with  the  -H, --header flag of course.  When used with -L, --location you can
              append ";auto" to the --referer URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL
              when  it  follows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone, even if
              you don't set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert 
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified client certificate file when getting  a  file
              with  HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based protocol. The certificate must be in PKCS#12
              format if using Secure Transport, or PEM format if using any other engine.  If  the
              optional  password  isn't  specified,  it will be queried for on the terminal. Note
              that this option assumes a "certificate" file that  is  the  private  key  and  the
              client  certificate  concatenated!  See  --cert  and --key to specify them indepen‐
              dently.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option  can  tell  curl  the
              nickname  of the certificate to use within the NSS database defined by the environ‐
              ment variable SSL_DIR (or by default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module
              (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded. If you want to use a file
              from the current directory, please precede it with "./" prefix, in order  to  avoid
              confusion  with  a nickname.  If the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded
              by "\" so that it is not recognized as password delimiter.  If  the  nickname  con‐
              tains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it is not recognized as an escape
              character.

              (iOS and Mac OS X only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,  then  the  cer‐
              tificate  string  can either be the name of a certificate/private key in the system
              or user keychain, or the path to a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key.  If
              you want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it with "./" pre‐
              fix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine 
              Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations. Use --engine list to
              print  a  list  of build-time supported engines. Note that not all (or none) of the
              engines may be available at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the names the -w option
              supports, to allow easier extraction of useful information after having run curl.

       --egd-file 
              (SSL)  Specify  the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon socket. The socket is
              used to seed the random engine for SSL  connections.  See  also  the  --random-file
              option.

       --expect100-timeout 
              (HTTP)  Maximum  time  in  seconds  that  you allow curl to wait for a 100-continue
              response when curl emits an Expects: 100-continue header in its request. By default
              curl  will  wait  one  second.  This option accepts decimal values! When curl stops
              waiting, it will continue as if the response has been received.

              (Added in 7.47.0)

       --cert-type 
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate is in. PEM, DER and
              ENG are recognized types.  If not specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert 
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify the peer. The file
              may contain multiple CA certificates. The certificate(s) must  be  in  PEM  format.
              Normally  curl is built to use a default file for this, so this option is typically
              used to alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if it is  set,  and
              uses the given path as a path to a CA cert bundle. This option overrides that vari‐
              able.

              The windows version of curl will automatically look  for  a  CA  certs  file  named
              ´curl-ca-bundle.crt´,  either  in the same directory as curl.exe, or in the Current
              Working Directory, or in any folder along your PATH.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library, the  NSS  PEM  PKCS#11  module  (lib‐
              nsspem.so) needs to be available for this option to work properly.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath 
              (SSL)  Tells  curl  to  use the specified certificate directory to verify the peer.
              Multiple  paths   can   be   provided   by   separating   them   with   ":"   (e.g.
              "path1:path2:path3").  The certificates must be in PEM format, and if curl is built
              against OpenSSL, the directory must have been processed using the c_rehash  utility
              supplied  with  OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered curl to make SSL-
              connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the --cacert file contains
              many CA certificates.

              If  this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored, and if it is used
              several times, the last one will be used.

       --pinnedpubkey 
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified public key file (or  hashes)  to  verify  the
              peer. This can be a path to a file which contains a single public key in PEM or DER
              format, or any number of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded  by  ´sha256//´  and
              separated by ´;´

              When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server sends a certificate indicating
              its identity. A public key is extracted from this certificate and if  it  does  not
              exactly  match  the public key provided to this option, curl will abort the connec‐
              tion before sending or receiving any data.

              Added in 7.39.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit. Added in 7.43.0 for  NSS  and  wolf‐
              SSL/CyaSSL.  sha256  support  added  in  7.44.0  for OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolf‐
              SSL/CyaSSL. Other SSL backends not supported.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cert-status
              (SSL) Tells curl to verify the status of the server certificate by using  the  Cer‐
              tificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS extension.

              If  this option is enabled and the server sends an invalid (e.g. expired) response,
              if the response suggests that the  server  certificate  has  been  revoked,  or  no
              response at all is received, the verification fails.

              This is currently only implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS backends.  (Added
              in 7.41.0)

       --false-start

              (SSL) Tells curl to use false start during the TLS handshake. False start is a mode
              where  a  TLS  client  will  start  sending  application  data before verifying the
              server's Finished message, thus saving a round trip when performing  a  full  hand‐
              shake.

              This  is  currently only implemented in the NSS and Secure Transport (on iOS 7.0 or
              later, or OS X 10.9 or later) backends.  (Added in 7.42.0)

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server errors. This is  mostly  done  to
              better enable scripts etc to better deal with failed attempts. In normal cases when
              an HTTP server fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating  so
              (which  often  also  describes why and more). This flag will prevent curl from out‐
              putting that and return error 22.

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-successful  response
              codes will slip through, especially when authentication is involved (response codes
              401 and 407).

       -F, --form 
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user has pressed the sub‐
              mit  button.  This  causes curl to POST data using the Content-Type multipart/form-
              data according to RFC 2388. This enables uploading of binary files  etc.  To  force
              the  'content'  part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To just get
              the content part from a file, prefix the file name with the symbol <.  The  differ‐
              ence between @ and < is then that @ makes a file get attached in the post as a file
              upload, while the < makes a text field and just get  the  contents  for  that  text
              field from a file.

              Example,  to send your password file to the server, where 'password' is the name of
              the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the filename. This goes  for
              both  @ and < constructs. Unfortunately it does not support reading the file from a
              named pipe or similar, as it needs the full size before the transfer starts.

              You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using 'type=', in a manner simi‐
              lar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You  can  also  explicitly  change  the name field of a file upload part by setting
              filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by double-quotes like:

              curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com

              or

              curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com

              Note that if a filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any double-quote or  back‐
              slash within the filename must be escaped by backslash.

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP)  When  an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name and password has
              been provided, this data is sent off using the ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user 
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails, send  this  command.
              When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's Secure Transport server over FTPS using a client
              certificate, using "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from
              the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP)  When  an  FTP  or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that doesn't currently
              exist on the server, the standard behavior of curl is to fail. Using  this  option,
              curl will instead attempt to create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an FTP(S) server. The
              method argument should be one of the following alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in the  given  URL.  For
                     deep hierarchies this means very many commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it
                     should be done. This is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc and give  a  full
                     path to the server for all these commands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl  does  one  CWD with the full target directory and then operates on the
                     file "normally" (like in the multicwd case). This is somewhat more standards
                     compliant than 'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

              (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP)  Use  passive  mode  for the data connection. Passive is the internal default
              behavior, but using this option can be used to  override  a  previous  -P/-ftp-port
              option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If  this  option  is  used  several  times,  only the first one is used. Undoing an
              enforced passive really isn't doable but you must then instead enforce the  correct
              -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive  mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and then PASV, unless
              --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in  its  response  to
              curl's  PASV  command when curl connects the data connection. Instead curl will re-
              use the same IP address it already uses  for  the  control  connection.  (Added  in
              7.14.2)

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead of PASV.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV). Certain FTP servers,
              mainly drftpd, require this non-standard command for directory listings as well  as
              up and downloads in PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP)  Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS layer after authenti‐
              cating. The rest of the control channel communication  will  be  unencrypted.  This
              allows  NAT routers to follow the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See
              --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will  not
              initiate the shutdown, but instead wait for the server to do it, and will not reply
              to the shutdown from the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown  and  waits
              for a reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.  Allows secure authen‐
              tication, but non-encrypted data transfers for efficiency.  Fails the  transfer  if
              the  server  doesn't support SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but
              will be removed in a future version.

       --form-string 
              (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value string for the  named  parameter  is
              used  literally.  Leading  '@'  and  '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the
              value have no special meaning. Use this in preference to --form if there's any pos‐
              sibility  that the string value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features of
              --form.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set this  option,  you
              can  specify  URLs  that  contain the letters {}[] without having them being inter‐
              preted by curl itself. Note that these letters are not normal  legal  URL  contents
              but they should be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G, --get
              When  used, this option will make all data specified with -d, --data, --data-binary
              or --data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP GET request instead of the  POST  request
              that otherwise would be used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' sepa‐
              rator.

              If used in combination with -I, the POST data will instead be appended to  the  URL
              with a HEAD request.

              If  this  option is used several times, only the first one is used. This is because
              undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but you should then instead enforce the  alterna‐
              tive method you prefer.

       -H, --header 
(HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP to a server. You may specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as one of the internal ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not replace inter‐ nally set headers without knowing perfectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giving a replacement without content on the right side of the colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom header with no-value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon, such as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:". curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with the proper end- of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you. See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options. Starting in 7.37.0, you need --proxy-header to send custom headers intended for a proxy. Example: # curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" http://192.168.0.1/ WARNING: headers set with this option will be set in all requests - even after redirects are followed, like when told with -L, --location. This can lead to the header being sent to other hosts than the original host, so sensitive headers should be used with caution combined with following redirects. This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers. --hostpubmd5 (SCP/SFTP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's public key, curl will refuse the connec‐ tion with the host unless the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1) --ignore-content-length For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header. This is particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will report incorrect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes. For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out the size before down‐ loading a file. -i, --include (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header includes things like server-name, date of the document, HTTP-version and more... -I, --head (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the file size and last modification time only. --interface Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can enter interface name, IP address or host name. An example could look like: curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/ If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -j, --junk-session-cookies (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will basically have the same effect as if a new session is started. Typical browsers always discard session cookies when they're closed down. -J, --remote-header-name (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the server-specified Content-Disposition filename instead of extracting a filename from the URL. There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected file names. -k, --insecure (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure" SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted to be made secure by using the CA cer‐ tificate bundle installed by default. This makes all connections considered "inse‐ cure" fail unless -k, --insecure is used. See this online resource for further details: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html -K, --config Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The config file is a text file in which command line arguments can be written which then will be used as if they were written on the actual command line. Options and their parameters must be specified on the same config file line, sepa‐ rated by whitespace, colon, or the equals sign. Long option names can optionally be given in the config file without the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or equals characters can be used as separators. If the option is specified with one or two dashes, there can be no colon or equals character between the option and its parameter. If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be enclosed within quotes. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter is ignored. If the first column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line will be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical line in the config file. Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read the file from stdin. Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you need to specify it using the --url option, and not by simply writing the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to this: url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/" When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a default config file and uses it if found. The default config file is checked for in the following places in this order: 1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first checks for the CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that, it uses getpwuid() on Unix-like sys‐ tems (which returns the home dir given the current user in your system). On Win‐ dows, it then checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USERPRO‐ FILE%\Application Data'. 2) On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On Unix-like systems, it will simply try to load .curlrc from the determined home dir. # --- Example file --- # this is a comment url = "curl.haxx.se" output = "curlhere.html" user-agent = "superagent/1.0" # and fetch another URL too url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html" -O referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/" # --- End of example file --- This option can be used multiple times to load multiple config files. --keepalive-time This option sets the time a connection needs to remain idle before sending keepalive probes and the time between individual keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems offering the TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket options (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds. --key (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your private key in this separate file. For SSH, if not specified, curl tries the following candidates in order: '~/.ssh/id_rsa', '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --key-type (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key provided private key is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not specified, PEM is assumed. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --krb (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or 'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these, 'private' will instead be used. This option requires a library built with kerberos4 support. This is not very com‐ mon. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports it. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -l, --list-only (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-only view. This is especially useful if the user wants to machine-parse the contents of an FTP direc‐ tory since the normal directory view doesn't use a standard look or format. When used like this, the option causes a NLST command to be sent to the server instead of LIST. Note: Some FTP servers list only files in their response to NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links. (POP3) When retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch forces a LIST com‐ mand to be performed instead of RETR. This is particularly useful if the user wants to see if a specific message id exists on the server and what size it is. Note: When combined with -X, --request , this option can be used to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's unique identifier rather than it's message id to make the request. (Added in 7.21.5) -L, --location (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the requested page has moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header and a 3XX response code), this option will make curl redo the request on the new place. If used together with -i, --include or -I, --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials to the initial host. If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it won't be able to intercept the user+password. See also --location-trusted on how to change this. You can limit the amount of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option. When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response code was any other 3xx code, curl will re-send the following request using the same unmodified method. You can tell curl to not change the non-GET request method to GET after a 30x response by using the dedicated options for that: --post301, --post302 and -post303. --libcurl Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you will get a libcurl- using C source code written to the file that does the equivalent of what your com‐ mand-line operation does! If this option is used several times, the last given file name will be used. (Added in 7.16.1) --limit-rate Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use - for both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your entire bandwidth. To make it slower than it otherwise would be. The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is appended. Append‐ ing 'k' or 'K' will count the number as kilobytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G. The given rate is the average speed counted during the entire transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate. If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to help keeping the speed-limit logic working. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --local-port [-num] Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for the connection(s). Note that port numbers by nature are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this range to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup failures. (Added in 7.15.2) --location-trusted (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to a site to which you'll send your authentication info (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication). -m, --max-time Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to take. This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hanging for hours due to slow networks or links going down. Since 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time‐ out will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases in decimal preci‐ sion. See also the --connect-timeout option. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --login-options Specify the login options to use during server authentication. You can use the login options to specify protocol specific options that may be used during authentication. At present only IMAP, POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information about the login options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092 and IETF draft draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt (Added in 7.34.0). If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --mail-auth
(SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be used to specify the authentication address (identity) of a submitted message that is being relayed to another server. (Added in 7.25.0) --mail-from
(SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent from. (Added in 7.20.0) --max-filesize Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will not start and curl will return with exit code 63. NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and for such files this option has no effect even if the file transfer ends up being larger than this given limit. This concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers. --mail-rcpt
(SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name. When performing a mail transfer, the recipient should specify a valid email address to send the mail to. (Added in 7.20.0) When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the recipient should be specified as the user name or user name and domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0) When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the recipient should be spec‐ ified using the mailing list name, such as "Friends" or "London-Office". (Added in 7.34.0) --max-redirs Set maximum number of redirection-followings allowed. If -L, --location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl from following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit is set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it limitless. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --metalink This option can tell curl to parse and process a given URI as Metalink file (both version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported) and make use of the mirrors listed within for failover if there are errors (such as the file or server not being available). It will also verify the hash of the file after the download completes. The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed in memory and not stored in the local file system. Example to use a remote Metalink file: curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE protocol (file://): curl --metalink file://example.metalink Please note that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way to use a local Met‐ alink file at the time of this writing. Also note that if --metalink and --include are used together, --include will be ignored. This is because including headers in the response will break Metalink parser and if the headers are included in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will fail. (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.) -n, --netrc Makes curl scan the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's home directory for login name and password. This is typically used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will enable user authentication. See netrc(5) ftp(1) for details on the file format. Curl will not complain if that file doesn't have the right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home directory. A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name 'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to: machine host.domain.com login myself password secret -N, --no-buffer Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work situations, curl will use a standard buffered output stream that will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not necessarily exactly when the data arrives. Using this option will disable that buffering. Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering. --netrc-file This option is similar to --netrc, except that you provide the path (absolute or relative) to the netrc file that Curl should use. You can only specify one netrc file per invocation. If several --netrc-file options are provided, only the last one will be used. (Added in 7.21.5) This option overrides any use of --netrc as they are mutually exclusive. It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified. --netrc-optional Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does. --negotiate (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication. If you want to enable Negotiate (SPNEGO) for proxy authentication, then use --proxy-negotiate. This option requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI support. Use -V, --ver‐ sion to see if your curl supports GSS-API/SSPI and SPNEGO. When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user option to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a '-u :' is enough as the user name and password from the -u option aren't actually used. If this option is used several times, only the first one is used. --no-keepalive Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as by default curl enables them. Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive. --no-sessionid (SSL) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching. By default all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while nothing should ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs, there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may require you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added in 7.16.0) Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching. --noproxy Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is specified. The only wildcard is a single * character, which matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which con‐ tains the hostname, or the hostname itself. For example, local.com would match local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not www.notlocal.com. (Added in 7.19.4). --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers. It is a proprietary protocol, reverse- engineered by clever people and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of behavior should not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone who uses NTLM to switch to a public and documented authentication method instead, such as Digest. If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-ntlm. This option requires a library built with SSL support. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports NTLM. If this option is used several times, only the first one is used. -o, --output Write output to instead of stdout. If you are using {} or [] to fetch multi‐ ple documents, you can use '#' followed by a number in the specifier. That variable will be replaced with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in: curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt" or use several variables like: curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2" You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have. See also the --create-dirs option to create the local directories dynamically. Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash) will force the output to be done to stdout. -O, --remote-name Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get. (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut off.) The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the given URL, nothing else. Consequentially, the file will be saved in the current working directory. If you want the file saved in a different directory, make sure you change current working directory before you invoke curl with the -O, --remote-name flag! There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or other URL encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as file name. You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have. --oauth2-bearer (IMAP, POP3, SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0 server authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the user name which can be specified as part of the --url or -u, --user options. The Bearer Token and user name are formatted according to RFC 6750. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --proxy-header
(HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP to a proxy. You may specify any number of extra headers. This is the equivalent option to -H, --header but is for proxy communication only like in CONNECT requests when you want a sepa‐ rate header sent to the proxy to what is sent to the actual remote host. curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with the proper end- of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you. Headers specified with this option will not be included in requests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy. This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers. (Added in 7.37.0) -p, --proxytunnel When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through the proxy instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tunnel approach is made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port number curl wants to tunnel through to. -P, --ftp-port
(FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when connecting with FTP. This switch makes curl use active mode. In practice, curl then tells the server to con‐ nect back to the client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup an IP address and port for it to connect to.
should be one of: interface i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you want to use (Unix only) IP address i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address host name i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine - make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for the control con‐ nection If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use the EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really PORT++. Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address, to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you specify a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A single number works as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since the port may not be available. --pass (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --path-as-is Tell curl to not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given URL path. Normally curl will squash or merge them according to standards but with this option set you tell it not to do that. (Added in 7.42.0) --post301 (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7230/6.4.2 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How‐ ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.17.1) --post302 (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7230/6.4.3 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How‐ ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.19.1) --post303 (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7230/6.4.4 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 303 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How‐ ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.26.0) --proto Tells curl to use the listed protocols for its initial retrieval. Protocols are evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are: + Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permitted (this is the default if no modifier is used). - Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols already permitted. = Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already permitted), though subject to later modification by subsequent entries in the comma separated list. For example: --proto -ftps uses the default protocols, but disables ftps --proto -all,https,+http only enables http and https --proto =http,https also only enables http and https Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows scripts to safely rely on being able to disable potentially dangerous protocols, without relying upon support for that protocol being built into curl to avoid an error. This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of the option. (Added in 7.20.2) --proto-default Tells curl to use protocol for any URL missing a scheme name. Example: --proto-default https ftp.mozilla.org https://ftp.mozilla.org An unknown or unsupported protocol causes error CURLE_UNSUPPORTED_PROTOCOL. This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http). Without this option curl would make a guess based on the host, see --url for details. (Added in 7.45.0) --proto-redir Tells curl to use the listed protocols on redirect. See --proto for how protocols are represented. Example: --proto-redir -all,http,https Allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect. By default curl will allow all protocols on redirect except several disabled for security reasons: Since 7.19.4 FILE and SCP are disabled, and since 7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are also disabled. Specifying all or +all enables all protocols on redirect, including those dis‐ abled for security. (Added in 7.20.2) --proxy-anyauth Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when communicating with the given proxy. This might cause an extra request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2) --proxy-basic Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a remote host. Basic is the default authentication method curl uses with proxies. --proxy-digest Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host. --proxy-negotiate Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1) --proxy-ntlm Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote host. --proxy-service-name This option allows you to change the service name for proxy negotiation. Examples: --proxy-negotiate proxy-name --proxy-service-name sockd would use sockd/proxy-name. (Added in 7.43.0). --proxy1.0 Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x, --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1. --pubkey (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key in this separate file. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the public key from the pri‐ vate key file, so passing this option is generally not required. Note that this public key extraction requires libcurl to be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or higher that is itself linked against OpenSSL.) -q If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc config file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config for details on the default config file search path. -Q, --quote (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP server. Quote com‐ mands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer, prefix them with a dash '-'. To make commands be sent after curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer command(s), prefix the com‐ mand with a '+' (this is only supported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands. If the server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire opera‐ tion will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to SFTP servers. This option can be used multiple times. When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the com‐ mand with an asterisk (*) to make curl continue even if the command fails as by default curl will stop at first failure. SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP quote commands itself before sending them to the server. File names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special characters. Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote commands: chgrp group file The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the file operand to the group ID specified by the group operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID. chmod mode file The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode number. chown user file The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the file operand to the user ID specified by the user operand. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID. ln source_file target_file The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the target_file loca‐ tion pointing to the source_file location. mkdir directory_name The mkdir command creates the directory named by the directory_name operand. pwd The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the current working direc‐ tory. rename source target The rename command renames the file or directory named by the source operand to the destination path named by the target operand. rm file The rm command removes the file specified by the file operand. rmdir directory The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by the directory op‐ erand, provided it is empty. symlink source_file target_file See ln. -r, --range (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial document) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE. Ranges can be specified in a number of ways. 0-499 specifies the first 500 bytes 500-999 specifies the second 500 bytes -500 specifies the last 500 bytes 9500- specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward 0-0,-1 specifies the first and last byte only(*)(HTTP) 100-199,500-599 specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*) (HTTP) (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart response! Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character is given in the range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on the server's configuration. You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range, you'll instead get the whole doc‐ ument. FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop' syntax (option‐ ally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -R, --remote-time When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out the timestamp of the remote file, and if that is available make the local file get that same timestamp. --random-file (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered as random data. The data is used to seed the random engine for SSL connections. See also the --egd-file option. --raw (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of content or transfer encodings and instead makes them passed on unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2) --remote-name-all This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if you want to disable that for a spe‐ cific URL after --remote-name-all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no- remote-name. (Added in 7.19.0) --resolve Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair. Using this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified address and prevent the otherwise nor‐ mally resolved address to be used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on the command line. The port number should be the number used for the specific protocol the host will be used for. It means you need several entries if you want to provide address for the same host but different ports. This option can be used many times to add many host names to resolve. (Added in 7.21.3) --retry If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform a transfer, it will retry this number of times before giving up. Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx response code or an HTTP 5xx response code. When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one second and then for all forthcoming retries it will double the waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be the delay between the rest of the retries. By using --retry- delay you disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also --retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries. (Added in 7.12.3) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --retry-delay Make curl sleep this amount of time before each retry when a transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes the default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option is only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to zero will make curl use the default backoff time. (Added in 7.12.3) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --retry-max-time The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt. Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't reached the limit, the request will be made and while per‐ forming, it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a single request´s maximum time, use -m, --max-time. Set this option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -s, --silent Silent or quiet mode. Don't show progress meter or error messages. Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask for, potentially even to the termi‐ nal/stdout unless you redirect it. --sasl-ir Enable initial response in SASL authentication. (Added in 7.31.0) --service-name This option allows you to change the service name for SPNEGO. Examples: --negotiate --service-name sockd would use sockd/server-name. (Added in 7.43.0). -S, --show-error When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it fails. --ssl (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection. Reverts to a non- secure connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS. See also --ftp-ssl-con‐ trol and --ssl-reqd for different levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0) This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0). That option name can still be used but will be removed in a future version. --ssl-reqd (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection. Terminates the connec‐ tion if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS. (Added in 7.20.0) This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in 7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be removed in a future version. --ssl-allow-beast (SSL) This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST. If this option isn't used, the SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause interoperability problems with some older SSL implemen‐ tations. WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag you ask for exactly that. (Added in 7.25.0) --ssl-no-revoke (WinSSL) This option tells curl to disable certificate revocation checks. WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag you ask for exactly that. (Added in 7.44.0) --socks4 Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2) This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclu‐ sive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --socks4a Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0) This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclu‐ sive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --socks5-hostname Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host name). If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0) This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclu‐ sive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol prefix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.) --socks5 Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name locally. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclu‐ sive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.) This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or LDAP. --socks5-gssapi-service The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn. This option allows you to change it. Examples: --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would use sockd/proxy- name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd/real-name would use sockd/real-name for cases where the proxy-name does not match the principal name. (Added in 7.19.4). --socks5-gssapi-nec As part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negotiated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected, but the NEC reference implementation does not. The option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the protection mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4). --stderr Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -t, --telnet-option Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are: TTYPE= Sets the terminal type. XDISPLOC= Sets the X display location. NEW_ENV= Sets an environment variable. -T, --upload-file This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will be used. Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a given file. Alter‐ nately, the file name "." (a single period) may be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking mode to allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded. You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T + URL pair speci‐ fies what to upload and to where. curl also supports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload multiple files to a single URL by using the same URL globbing style supported in the URL, like this: curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com or even curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/ --tcp-nodelay Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2) --tftp-blksize (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (Added in 7.20.0) --tlsauthtype Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only supported option is "SRP", for TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option defaults to "SRP". (Added in 7.21.4) --tlspassword Set password for use with the TLS authentication method specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set. (Added in 7.21.4) --tlsuser Set username for use with the TLS authentication method specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also be set. (Added in 7.21.4) --tlsv1.0 (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 when negotiating with a remote TLS server. (Added in 7.34.0) --tlsv1.1 (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 when negotiating with a remote TLS server. (Added in 7.34.0) --tlsv1.2 (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 when negotiating with a remote TLS server. (Added in 7.34.0) --tr-encoding (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the data while receiving it. (Added in 7.21.6) --trace Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout. This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-ascii. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --trace-ascii Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout. This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output that might be easier to read for untrained humans. This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --trace-time Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl displays. (Added in 7.14.0) --unix-socket (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using the network. (Added in 7.40.0) -u, --user Specify the user name and password to use for server authentication. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional. If you simply specify the user name, curl will prompt for a password. The user name and passwords are split up on the first colon, which makes it impos‐ sible to use a colon in the user name with this option. The password can, still. When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based server you should include the Windows domain name in the user name, in order for the server to successfully obtain a Ker‐ beros Ticket. If you don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail. When using NTLM, the user name can be specified simply as the user name, without the domain, if there is a single domain and forest in your setup for example. To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or UPN (User Principal Name) formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and user@example.com respectively. If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Kerberos V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can tell curl to select the user name and password from your environment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :". If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -U, --proxy-user Specify the user name and password to use for proxy authentication. If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either Negotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to select the user name and password from your environment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-U :". If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --url Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want to specify URL(s) in a config file. If the given URL is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or "ftp://" etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host. If the outermost sub-domain name matches DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP, POP3 or SMTP then that protocol will be used, otherwise HTTP will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a default protocol, see --proto-default for details. This option may be used any number of times. To control where this URL is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-name options. -v, --verbose Be more verbose/talkative during the operation. Useful for debugging and seeing what's going on "under the hood". A line starting with '>' means "header data" sent by curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl. Note that if you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might be the option you're looking for. If you think this option still doesn't give you enough details, consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead. This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace. Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet. -w, --write-out Make curl display information on stdout after a completed transfer. The format is a string that may contain plain text mixed with any number of variables. The format can be specified as a literal "string", or you can have curl read the format from a file with "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from stdin you write "@-". The variables present in the output format will be substituted by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below. All variables are specified as %{vari‐ able_name} and to output a normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t. NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment, where all occur‐ rences of % must be doubled when using this option. The variables available are: content_type The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was any. filename_effective The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This is only meaning‐ ful if curl is told to write to a file with the --remote-name or --output option. It's most useful in combination with the --remote- header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1) ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4) http_code The numerical response code that was found in the last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer. In 7.18.2 the alias response_code was added to show the same info. http_connect The numerical code that was found in the last response (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request. (Added in 7.12.4) local_ip The IP address of the local end of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0) local_port The local port number of the most recently done connection (Added in 7.29.0) num_connects Number of new connects made in the recent transfer. (Added in 7.12.3) num_redirects Number of redirects that were followed in the request. (Added in 7.12.3) redirect_url When an HTTP request was made without -L to follow redirects, this variable will show the actual URL a redirect would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2) remote_ip The remote IP address of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0) remote_port The remote port number of the most recently done connection (Added in 7.29.0) size_download The total amount of bytes that were downloaded. size_header The total amount of bytes of the downloaded headers. size_request The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP request. size_upload The total amount of bytes that were uploaded. speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for the complete down‐ load. Bytes per second. speed_upload The average upload speed that curl measured for the complete upload. Bytes per second. ssl_verify_result The result of the SSL peer certificate verification that was requested. 0 means the verification was successful. (Added in 7.19.0) time_appconnect The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the remote host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0) time_connect The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy) was completed. time_namelookup The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the name resolv‐ ing was completed. time_pretransfer The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the file transfer was just about to begin. This includes all pre-transfer commands and negotiations that are specific to the particular protocol(s) involved. time_redirect The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection steps include name lookup, connect, pretransfer and transfer before the final transac‐ tion was started. time_redirect shows the complete execution time for multiple redirections. (Added in 7.12.3) time_starttransfer The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the first byte was just about to be transferred. This includes time_pretransfer and also the time the server needed to calculate the result. time_total The total time, in seconds, that the full operation lasted. The time will be displayed with millisecond resolution. url_effective The URL that was fetched last. This is most meaningful if you've told curl to follow location: headers. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]> Use the specified proxy. The proxy string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all others will be treated as HTTP proxies. (The protocol support was added in curl 7.21.7) If the port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is assumed to be 1080. This option overrides existing environment variables that set the proxy to use. If there's an environment variable setting a proxy, you can set proxy to "" to over‐ ride it. All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will transparently be con‐ verted to HTTP. It means that certain protocol specific operations might not be available. This is not the case if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p, --proxytunnel option. User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special characters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a. The proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy environment vari‐ ables, including the protocol prefix (http://) and the embedded user + password. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -X, --request (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicating with the HTTP server. The specified request method will be used instead of the method otherwise used (which defaults to GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explanations. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE, but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and more. Normally you don't need this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD, POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated command line options. This option only changes the actual word used in the HTTP request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for example if you want to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option. The method string you set with -X will be used for all requests, which if you for example use -L, --location may cause unintended side-effects when curl doesn't change request method according to the HTTP 30x response codes - and similar. (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when doing file lists with FTP. (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or RETR. (Added in 7.26.0) (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use instead of LIST. (Added in 7.30.0) (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --xattr When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store certain file metadata in extended file attributes. Currently, the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP, the content type is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the file system does not support extended attributes, a warning is issued. -y, --speed-time

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