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NANO(1)                              General Commands Manual                              NANO(1)

NAME
       nano - Nano's ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone

SYNOPSIS
       nano [options] [[+line,column] file]...

DESCRIPTION
       nano  is  a small, free and friendly editor which aims to replace Pico, the default editor
       included in the non-free Pine package.  On top of copying Pico's look and feel, nano  also
       implements  some  missing  (or  disabled by default) features in Pico, such as "search and
       replace" and "go to line and column number".

EDITING
       Entering text and moving around in a file is straightforward: typing the letters and using
       the  normal  cursor  movement keys.  Commands are entered by using the Control (^) and the
       Alt or Meta (M-) keys.  Typing ^K deletes the current line and puts it in  the  cutbuffer.
       Consecutive ^Ks will put all deleted lines together in the cutbuffer.  Any cursor movement
       or executing any other command will cause the next ^K to overwrite the  cutbuffer.   A  ^U
       will paste the current contents of the cutbuffer at the current cursor position.

       When  a  more precise piece of text needs to be cut or copied, one can mark its start with
       ^6, move the cursor to its end (the marked text will be highlighted), and then use  ^K  to
       cut  it,  or  M-6 to copy it to the cutbuffer. One can also save the marked text to a file
       with ^O, or spell check it with ^T.

       The two lines at the bottom of the screen show the most important commands;  the  built-in
       help  (^G)  lists all the available ones.  The default key bindings can be changed via the
       .nanorc file -- see nanorc(5).

OPTIONS
       +line,column
              Places the cursor on line number line and at column number column (at least one  of
              which must be specified) on startup, instead of the default line 1, column 1.

       -A, --smarthome
              Make the Home key smarter.  When Home is pressed anywhere but at the very beginning
              of non-whitespace characters on a line, the cursor  will  jump  to  that  beginning
              (either forwards or backwards).  If the cursor is already at that position, it will
              jump to the true beginning of the line.

       -B, --backup
              When saving a file, back up the previous version of it, using the current  filename
              suffixed with a tilde (~).

       -C directory, --backupdir=directory
              Make  and  keep not just one backup file, but make and keep a uniquely numbered one
              every time a file is saved -- when backups  are  enabled.   The  uniquely  numbered
              files are stored in the specified directory.

       -D, --boldtext
              Use bold text instead of reverse video text.

       -E, --tabstospaces
              Convert typed tabs to spaces.

       -F, --multibuffer
              Enable multiple file buffers (if support for them has been compiled in).

       -G, --locking
              Enable vim-style file locking when editing files.

       -H, --historylog
              Log  search and replace strings to ~/.nano/search_history, so they can be retrieved
              in later sessions.

       -I, --ignorercfiles
              Don't look at the system's nanorc nor at ~/.nanorc.

       -K, --rebindkeypad
              Interpret the numeric keypad keys so that they all work properly.  You should  only
              need  to  use  this option if they don't, as mouse support won't work properly with
              this option enabled.

       -L, --nonewlines
              Don't add newlines to the ends of files.

       -N, --noconvert
              Disable automatic conversion of files from DOS/Mac format.

       -O, --morespace
              Use the blank line below the titlebar as extra editing space.

       -P, --positionlog
              For the 200 most recent files, log the last position of the cursor, and place it at
              that  position  again  upon  reopening  such a file.  (The old form of this option,
              --poslog, is deprecated.)

       -Q "characters", --quotestr="characters"
              Set the quoting string for justifying.   The  default  is  "^([ \t]*[#:>\|}])+"  if
              extended  regular expression support is available, or "> " otherwise.  Note that \t
              stands for a Tab.

       -R, --restricted
              Restricted mode: don't read or write to any file not specified on the command line;
              don't  read  any  nanorc  files nor history files; don't allow suspending nor spell
              checking; don't allow a file to be appended to, prepended to, or saved under a dif‐
              ferent  name  if  it  already has one; and don't use backup files.  This restricted
              mode is also accessible by invoking nano with any name  beginning  with  'r'  (e.g.
              "rnano").

       -S, --smooth
              Enable  smooth  scrolling.   Text  will  scroll  line-by-line, instead of the usual
              chunk-by-chunk behavior.

       -T number, --tabsize=number
              Set the size (width) of a tab to number columns.   The  value  of  number  must  be
              greater than 0.  The default value is 8.

       -U, --quickblank
              Do  quick  statusbar blanking.  Statusbar messages will disappear after 1 keystroke
              instead of 25.  Note that -c overrides this.

       -V, --version
              Show the current version number and exit.

       -W, --wordbounds
              Detect word boundaries more accurately by treating punctuation characters  as  part
              of a word.

       -Y name, --syntax=name
              Specify  the  name of the syntax highlighting to use from among the ones defined in
              the nanorc files.

       -c, --constantshow
              Constantly show the cursor position.  Note that this overrides -U.

       -d, --rebinddelete
              Interpret the Delete key differently so that both Backspace and Delete  work  prop‐
              erly.   You  should  only  need to use this option if Backspace acts like Delete on
              your system.

       -h, --help
              Show a summary of the available command-line options and exit.

       -i, --autoindent
              Indent new lines to the previous line's indentation.  Useful  when  editing  source
              code.

       -k, --cut
              Make  the  'Cut Text' command (normally ^K) cut from the current cursor position to
              the end of the line, instead of cutting the entire line.

       -m, --mouse
              Enable mouse support, if available for your system.  When enabled, mouse clicks can
              be used to place the cursor, set the mark (with a double click), and execute short‐
              cuts.  The mouse will work in the X Window System, and on the console when  gpm  is
              running.   Text  can  still  be selected through dragging by holding down the Shift
              key.

       -n, --noread
              Treat any name given on the command line as a new file.  This allows nano to  write
              to  named pipes: it will start with a blank buffer, and will write to the pipe when
              the user saves the "file".  This way nano can be used as an editor  in  combination
              with for instance gpg without having to write sensitive data to disk first.

       -o directory, --operatingdir=directory
              Set the operating directory.  This makes nano set up something similar to a chroot.

       -p, --preserve
              Preserve  the XON and XOFF sequences (^Q and ^S) so they will be caught by the ter‐
              minal.

       -q, --quiet
              Do not report errors in the nanorc files nor ask them to be acknowledged by  press‐
              ing Enter at startup.

       -r number, --fill=number
              Hard-wrap  lines at column number.  If this value is 0 or less, wrapping will occur
              at the width of the screen less number columns, allowing the  wrap  point  to  vary
              along  with the width of the screen if the screen is resized.  The default value is
              -8.  This option conflicts with -w -- the last one given takes effect.

       -s program, --speller=program
              Use this alternative spell checker command.

       -t, --tempfile
              Always save a changed buffer without prompting.  Same as Pico's -t option.

       -u, --unix
              Save a file by default in Unix format.  This overrides nano's default  behavior  of
              saving  a file in the format that it had.  (This option has no effect when you also
              use --noconvert.)

       -v, --view
              View-file (read-only) mode.

       -w, --nowrap
              Disable the hard-wrapping of long lines.  This option conflicts with -r -- the last
              one given takes effect.

       -x, --nohelp
              Don't show the two help lines at the bottom of the screen.

       -z, --suspend
              Enable the suspend ability.

       -$, --softwrap
              Enable 'soft wrapping'.  This will make nano attempt to display the entire contents
              of any line, even if it is longer than the screen width, by continuing it over mul‐
              tiple screen lines.  Since '$' normally refers to a variable in the Unix shell, you
              should specify this option last when using other options (e.g. 'nano -wS$') or pass
              it separately (e.g. 'nano -wS -$').

       -a, -b, -e, -f, -g, -j
              Ignored, for compatibility with Pico.

INITIALIZATION FILE
       nano  will  read  initialization  files in the following order: the system's nanorc (if it
       exists), and then the user's ~/.nanorc (if it exists).   Please  see  nanorc(5)  for  more
       information on the possible contents of those files.

NOTES
       If no alternative spell checker command is specified on the command line nor in one of the
       nanorc files, nano will check the SPELL environment variable for one.

       In some cases nano will try to dump the buffer into an emergency file.  This  will  happen
       mainly if nano receives a SIGHUP or SIGTERM or runs out of memory.  It will write the buf‐
       fer into a file named nano.save if the buffer didn't have a name already, or  will  add  a
       ".save"  suffix  to  the  current  filename.   If an emergency file with that name already
       exists in the current directory, it will add ".save" plus a number (e.g. ".save.1") to the
       current filename in order to make it unique.  In multibuffer mode, nano will write all the
       open buffers to their respective emergency files.

BUGS
       Justifications (^J) and reindentations (M-{ and M-}) are not yet covered  by  the  general
       undo  system.  So after a justification that is not immediately undone, or after any rein‐
       dentation, earlier edits cannot be undone any more.  The workaround is, of course, to exit
       without saving.

       Please    report    any    other    bugs    that    you   encounter   via   https://savan‐
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=nano.

HOMEPAGE
       http://www.nano-editor.org/

SEE ALSO
       nanorc(5)
       /usr/share/doc/nano/ (or equivalent on your system)

AUTHOR
       Chris Allegretta , et al (see the files AUTHORS and THANKS for  details).
       This  manual  page was originally written by Jordi Mallach , for the Debian
       system (but may be used by others).

February 2016                             version 2.5.3                                   NANO(1)

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