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FIND(1)                              General Commands Manual                              FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [starting-point...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree
       rooted at each given starting-point by evaluating the given expression from left to right,
       according  to  the rules of precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known
       (the left hand side is false for and operations, true for or), at which point  find  moves
       on to the next file name.  If no starting-point is specified, `.' is assumed.

       If  you  are  using find in an environment where security is important (for example if you
       are using it to search directories that are writable by other users), you should read  the
       "Security  Considerations" chapter of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding
       Files and comes with findutils.   That document also includes a lot more detail  and  dis‐
       cussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line arguments
       following these are taken to be names of files or directories to be examined,  up  to  the
       first  argument  that  begins with `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any
       following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched  for.
       If  no  paths  are  given,  the current directory is used.  If no expression is given, the
       expression -print is used (but you should probably consider using  -print0  instead,  any‐
       way).

       This  manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These options control
       the behaviour of find but are specified immediately after the last path  name.   The  five
       `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O must appear before the first path name, if at all.  A
       double dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining  arguments  are  not  options
       (though ensuring that all start points begin with either `./' or `/' is generally safer if
       you use wildcards in the list of start points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or
              prints  information  a  file, and the file is a symbolic link, the information used
              shall be taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information about  files,  the
              information  used  shall be taken from the properties of the file to which the link
              points, not from the link itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link  or  find  is
              unable  to  examine the file to which the link points).  Use of this option implies
              -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.   If  -L
              is  in  effect  and  find  discovers  a  symbolic link to a subdirectory during its
              search, the subdirectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against  the
              type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself (unless
              the symbolic link is broken).  Actions that can cause symbolic links to become bro‐
              ken while find is executing (for example -delete) can give rise to confusing behav‐
              iour.  Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -H     Do not follow symbolic links, except while processing the command  line  arguments.
              When find examines or prints information about files, the information used shall be
              taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
              behaviour  is when a file specified on the command line is a symbolic link, and the
              link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information used is taken from what‐
              ever the link points to (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the
              link itself is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link  can‐
              not  be examined.  If -H is in effect and one of the paths specified on the command
              line is a symbolic link to a directory, the contents  of  that  directory  will  be
              examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If  more  than  one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others; the last one
       appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it is the default, the -P option should
       be considered to be in effect unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU  find  frequently stats files during the processing of the command line itself, before
       any searching has begun.  These options also affect how  those  arguments  are  processed.
       Specifically,  there  are  a number of tests that compare files listed on the command line
       against a file we are currently considering.  In each case, the file specified on the com‐
       mand line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been saved.  If the
       named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or  if  neither  -H
       nor  -L  were  specified),  the information used for the comparison will be taken from the
       properties of the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties  of  the
       file  the  link  points  to.   If  find cannot follow the link (for example because it has
       insufficient privileges or the link points to a nonexistent file) the  properties  of  the
       link itself will be used.

       When  the  -H  or  -L  options are in effect, any symbolic links listed as the argument of
       -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be taken from the file  to  which  the
       symbolic link points.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the point where
       it appears (that is, if -L is not used but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing  after
       -follow on the command line will be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
              Print  diagnostic  information;  this  can be helpful to diagnose problems with why
              find is not doing what you want.  The list of debug options should be  comma  sepa‐
              rated.   Compatibility  of  the debug options is not guaranteed between releases of
              findutils.  For a complete list of valid debug options, see the output of  find  -D
              help.  Valid debug options include

              help   Explain the debugging options

              tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised form.

              stat   Print  messages  as files are examined with the stat and lstat system calls.
                     The find program tries to minimise such calls.

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation of the expression
                     tree; see the -O option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate succeeded or failed.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to speed up execution
              while preserving the overall effect; that is, predicates with side effects are  not
              reordered relative to each other.  The optimisations performed at each optimisation
              level are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This is the default optimisation level and corresponds  to  the  traditional
                     behaviour.   Expressions are reordered so that tests based only on the names
                     of files (for example -name and -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any -type or -xtype tests are performed after any tests based  only  on  the
                     names  of  files,  but  before  any  tests that require information from the
                     inode.  On many modern versions of Unix, file types are  returned  by  read‐
                     dir()  and  so these predicates are faster to evaluate than predicates which
                     need to stat the file first.  If you use the -fstype FOO predicate and spec‐
                     ify  a  filesystem  type  FOO  which  is  not  known  (that  is,  present in
                     `/etc/mtab') at the time  find  starts,  that  predicate  is  equivalent  to
                     -false.

              3      At  this optimisation level, the full cost-based query optimiser is enabled.
                     The order of tests is modified so that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed
                     first  and  more  expensive  ones are performed later, if necessary.  Within
                     each cost band, predicates are  evaluated  earlier  or  later  according  to
                     whether  they  are  likely  to succeed or not.  For -o, predicates which are
                     likely to succeed are evaluated earlier, and for -a,  predicates  which  are
                     likely to fail are evaluated earlier.

              The  cost-based  optimiser has a fixed idea of how likely any given test is to suc‐
              ceed.  In some cases the probability takes account of the specific  nature  of  the
              test  (for  example, -type f is assumed to be more likely to succeed than -type c).
              The cost-based optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it  does  not  actually
              improve  the  performance of find, it will be removed again.  Conversely, optimisa‐
              tions that prove to be reliable, robust and effective may be enabled at lower opti‐
              misation levels over time.  However, the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation level
              1) will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The findutils test suite  runs
              all the tests on find at each optimisation level and ensures that the result is the
              same.

EXPRESSION
       The part of the command line after the list of starting points is the expression.  This is
       a  kind of query specification describing how we match files and what we do with the files
       that were matched.  An expression is composed of a sequence of things:

       Tests  Tests return a true or false value, usually on the basis of some property of a file
              we are considering.  The -empty test for example is true only when the current file
              is empty.

       Actions
              Actions have side effects (such as printing something on the standard  output)  and
              return  either  true or false, usually based on whether or not they are successful.
              The -print action for example prints the name of the current file on  the  standard
              output.

       Global options
              Global  options  affect the operation of tests and actions specified on any part of
              the command line.  Global options always return true.  The -depth option for  exam‐
              ple makes find traverse the file system in a depth-first order.

       Positional options
              Positional  optiona  affect  only  tests  or actions which follow them.  Positional
              options always return true.  The -regextype option for example is positional, spec‐
              ifying  the  regular  expression dialect for regulat expressions occurring later on
              the command line.

       Operators
              Operators join together the other items within the expression.   They  include  for
              example -o (meaning logical OR) and -a (meaning logical AND).  Where an operator is
              missing, -a is assumed.

       If the whole expression contains no actions other than -prune or -print,  -print  is  per‐
       formed on all files for which the whole expression is true.

       The -delete action also acts like an option (since it implies -depth).

   POSITIONAL OPTIONS
       Positional options always return true.  They affect only tests occurring later on the com‐
       mand line.

       -daystart
              Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the begin‐
              ning  of today rather than from 24 hours ago.  This option only affects tests which
              appear later on the command line.

       -follow
              Deprecated; use the  -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic  links.   Implies
              -noleaf.   The -follow option affects only those tests which appear after it on the
              command line.  Unless the -H or -L option has been specified, the position  of  the
              -follow  option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files listed as
              the argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.   The  same
              consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type pred‐
              icate will always match against the type of the file that a symbolic link points to
              rather  than  the  link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname and -ilname predi‐
              cates always to return false.

       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests  which
              occur  later on the command line.  To see which regular expression types are known,
              use -regextype help.  The Texinfo documentation (see SEE ALSO) explains the meaning
              of and differences between the various types of regular expression.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn  warning  messages  on  or off.  These warnings apply only to the command line
              usage, not to any conditions that find might encounter when  it  searches  directo‐
              ries.   The  default behaviour corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and
              to -nowarn otherwise.  If a warning message relating to command-line usage is  pro‐
              duced, the exit status of find is not affected.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment
              variable is set, and -warn is also used, it is not specified which, if  any,  warn‐
              ings will be active.

   GLOBAL OPTIONS
       Global  options always return true.  Global options take effect even for tests which occur
       earlier on the command line.  To prevent confusion, global options should specified on the
       command-line after the list of start points, just before the first test, positional option
       or action. If you specify a global option in some other place, find will issue  a  warning
       message explaining that this can be confusing.

       The  global  options occur after the list of start points, and so are not the same kind of
       option as -L, for example.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.  The -delete  action
              also implies -depth.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally,  find  will  emit  an error message when it fails to stat a file.  If you
              give this option and a file is deleted between the time find reads the name of  the
              file  from  the  directory and the time it tries to stat the file, no error message
              will be issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names are  given
              on  the  command  line.   This  option takes effect at the time the command line is
              read, which means that you cannot search one  part  of  the  filesystem  with  this
              option  on  and  part  of it with this option off (if you need to do that, you will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels  of  directories  below  the
              starting-points.  -maxdepth 0
               means only apply the tests and actions to the starting-points themselves.

       -mindepth levels
              Do  not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative inte‐
              ger).  -mindepth 1 means process all files except the starting-points.

       -mount Don't descend directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name for  -xdev,  for
              compatibility with some other versions of find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do  not  optimize  by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer subdirectories than
              their hard link count.  This option is needed when searching  filesystems  that  do
              not follow the Unix directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory on a  normal  Unix  filesystem  has  at
              least  2 hard links: its name and its `.'  entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories
              (if any) each have a `..' entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a
              directory,  after  it  has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's link
              count, it knows that the rest of the entries in the directory  are  non-directories
              (`leaf'  files  in  the directory tree).  If only the files' names need to be exam‐
              ined, there is no need to stat them; this gives a significant  increase  in  search
              speed.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY and -samefile, allow comparison between the file cur‐
       rently being examined and some reference file specified on the command line.   When  these
       tests  are used, the interpretation of the reference file is determined by the options -H,
       -L and -P and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once,  at  the
       time  the  command line is parsed.  If the reference file cannot be examined (for example,
       the stat(2) system call fails for it), an error message is issued, and find exits  with  a
       nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic
              link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the access time of  the  file
              it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File  was  last  accessed  n*24  hours ago.  When find figures out how many 24-hour
              periods ago the file was last accessed, any fractional part is ignored, so to match
              -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File's  status was last changed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a
              symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in  effect,  the  status-change
              time of the file it points to is always used.

       -ctime n
              File's  status  was  last  changed  n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to
              understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
              Matches files which are executable and directories which are searchable (in a  file
              name  resolution  sense).   This  takes into account access control lists and other
              permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test  makes  use  of  the
              access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping (or
              root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel  and
              so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.  Because this
              test is based only on the result of the access(2) system call, there is no  guaran‐
              tee that a file for which this test succeeds can actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File  is  on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types vary among dif‐
              ferent versions of Unix; an incomplete list of filesystem types that  are  accepted
              on  some  version  of Unix or another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.
              You can use -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option  or  the  -follow
              option is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns `fo*' and
              `F??' match the file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.   The  pattern  `*foo*`
              will also match a file called '.foobar'.

       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              See -ipath.  This alternative is less portable than -ipath.

       -links n
              File has n links.

       -lname pattern
              File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern.  The metachar‐
              acters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If the -L option or the  -follow  option
              is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File's  data  was  last  modified  n*24  hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to
              understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base of file name (the path with the leading  directories  removed)  matches  shell
              pattern  pattern.  Because the leading directories are removed, the file names con‐
              sidered for a match with -name will never include a  slash,  so  `-name  a/b'  will
              never match anything (you probably need to use -path instead).  A warning is issued
              if you try to do this, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.  The
              metacharacters (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the base name (this
              is a change in findutils-4.2.2;  see  section  STANDARDS  CONFORMANCE  below).   To
              ignore  a  directory  and  the  files  under  it, use -prune; see an example in the
              description of -path.  Braces are not recognised as being special, despite the fact
              that  some  shells including Bash imbue braces with a special meaning in shell pat‐
              terns.  The filename matching is performed with the use of the  fnmatch(3)  library
              function.    Don't  forget  to enclose the pattern in quotes in order to protect it
              from expansion by the shell.

       -newer file
              File was modified more recently than file.  If file is a symbolic link and  the  -H
              option  or  the -L option is in effect, the modification time of the file it points
              to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
              Succeeds if timestamp X of the file being considered is newer than timestamp  Y  of
              the file reference.   The letters X and Y can be any of the following letters:

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X to be t.  Some com‐
              binations are not implemented on all systems; for example B is not supported on all
              systems.   If  an  invalid  or  unsupported combination of XY is specified, a fatal
              error results.  Time specifications are interpreted as for the argument to  the  -d
              option  of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a reference file, and the
              birth time cannot be determined, a fatal error message results.  If you  specify  a
              test  which  refers  to the birth time of files being examined, this test will fail
              for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do not  treat  `/'  or
              `.' specially; so, for example,
                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one exists).  To ignore
              a whole directory tree, use -prune rather than checking every  file  in  the  tree.
              For  example, to skip the directory `src/emacs' and all files and directories under
              it, and print the names of the other files found, do something like this:
                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting from  one
              of  the start points named on the command line.  It would only make sense to use an
              absolute path name here if the relevant start point is also an absolute path.  This
              means that this command will never match anything:
                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              Find compares the -path argument with the concatenation of a directory name and the
              base name of the file it's examining.  Since the concatenation will never end  with
              a  slash,  -path  arguments  ending in a slash will match nothing (except perhaps a
              start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path is also  supported
              by HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
              File's  permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact match
              is required, if you want to use this form for symbolic modes, you may have to spec‐
              ify  a  rather  complex mode string.  For example `-perm g=w' will only match files
              which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write permission  is  the  only
              permission set).  It is more likely that you will want to use the `/' or `-' forms,
              for example `-perm -g=w', which matches any file with group write permission.   See
              the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted
              in this form, and this is usually the way in which you would want to use them.  You
              must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section
              for some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are  accepted
              in  this  form.   You must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See
              the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in mode
              are set, this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consistent with the be‐
              haviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              This is no longer supported (and has been deprecated since 2005).  Use -perm  /mode
              instead.

       -readable
              Matches files which are readable.  This takes into account access control lists and
              other permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes  use  of
              the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
              (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's  kernel
              and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on the whole path,
              not a search.  For example, to match a file named `./fubar3', you can use the regu‐
              lar  expression  `.*bar.'  or  `.*b.*3',  but not `f.*r3'.  The regular expressions
              understood by find are by default  Emacs  Regular  Expressions,  but  this  can  be
              changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
              File  refers  to  the  same inode as name.   When -L is in effect, this can include
              symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space, rounding up.  The following suffixes can be used:

              `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The size does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in  sparse  files
              that are not actually allocated.  Bear in mind that the `%k' and `%b' format speci‐
              fiers of -printf handle sparse files differently.  The `b'  suffix  always  denotes
              512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different to the behaviour of
              -ls.

              The + and - prefixes signify greater than and less than, as usual.   Bear  in  mind
              that the size is rounded up to the next unit. Therefore -size -1M is not equivalent
              to -size -1048576c.  The former only matches empty files, the latter matches  files
              from 1 to 1,048,575 bytes.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic  link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option is
                     in effect, unless the symbolic link is broken.  If you want  to  search  for
                     symbolic links when -L is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              See -path.  This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
              Matches files which are writable.  This takes into account access control lists and
              other permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes  use  of
              the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
              (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's  kernel
              and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -xtype c
              The  same  as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links: if the
              -H or -P option was specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type  c;  if
              the  -L  option  has  been  given,  true if c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic
              links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file matches glob pattern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed, an  error  message
              is  issued.   If -delete fails, find's exit status will be nonzero (when it eventu‐
              ally exits).  Use of -delete automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line is evaluated as an expression, so
              putting  -delete  first  will make find try to delete everything below the starting
              points you specified.  When testing a find command line that you  later  intend  to
              use with -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid later sur‐
              prises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete
              together.

       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are
              taken to be arguments to the command until an argument consisting of `;' is encoun‐
              tered.  The string `{}' is replaced by the current file name being processed every‐
              where it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments where it  is
              alone,  as  in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions might need to be
              escaped (with a `\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by  the  shell.   See
              the  EXAMPLES  section  for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The specified
              command is run once for each matched file.  The command is executed in the starting
              directory.    There  are unavoidable security problems surrounding use of the -exec
              action; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
              This variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the selected  files,
              but  the command line is built by appending each selected file name at the end; the
              total number of invocations of the command will be much less  than  the  number  of
              matched  files.   The  command line is built in much the same way that xargs builds
              its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}' is allowed within the  command.   The
              command  is  executed in the starting directory.  If find encounters an error, this
              can sometimes cause an immediate exit, so some pending commands may not be  run  at
              all.  This variant of -exec always returns true.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like  -exec,  but the specified command is run from the subdirectory containing the
              matched file, which is not normally the directory in which you started find.   This
              a  much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions dur‐
              ing resolution of the paths to the matched files.  As with the  -exec  action,  the
              `+'  form  of  -execdir  will build a command line to process more than one matched
              file, but any given invocation of command will only list files that  exist  in  the
              same  subdirectory.   If you use this option, you must ensure that your $PATH envi‐
              ronment variable does not reference `.'; otherwise, an attacker can  run  any  com‐
              mands  they like by leaving an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you
              will run -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty  or
              which  are  not  absolute  directory  names.  If find encounters an error, this can
              sometimes cause an immediate exit, so some pending commands may not be run at  all.
              The  result  of the action depends on whether the + or the ; variant is being used;
              -execdir command {} + always returns true, while -execdir command {} ; returns true
              only if command returns 0.

       -fls file
              True;  like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created,
              even if the predicate is never matched.  See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for
              information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is
              run, it is created; if it does exist, it is truncated.  The file  names  `/dev/std‐
              out' and `/dev/stderr' are handled specially; they refer to the standard output and
              standard error output, respectively.  The output file is always  created,  even  if
              the  predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  cre‐
              ated,  even  if  the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
              for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  cre‐
              ated,  even  if  the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
              for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on standard output.   The  block  counts
              are  of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which
              case 512-byte blocks are used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section  for  information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the command.  Otherwise
              just return false.  If the command is run, its standard input  is  redirected  from
              /dev/null.

              The  response  to  the  prompt  is matched against a pair of regular expressions to
              determine if it is an affirmative or negative response.  This regular expression is
              obtained  from  the system if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or
              otherwise from find's message translations.  If the system has no suitable  defini‐
              tion,  find's  own definition will be used.   In either case, the interpretation of
              the regular expression  itself  will  be  affected  by  the  environment  variables
              'LC_CTYPE'  (character  classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equivalence
              classes).

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.  If the user  does
              not  agree,  just return false.  If the command is run, its standard input is redi‐
              rected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline.    If
              you  are  piping  the output of find into another program and there is the faintest
              possibility that the files which you are searching for  might  contain  a  newline,
              then you should seriously consider using the -print0 option instead of -print.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in file‐
              names are handled.

       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
              (instead of the newline character that -print uses).  This allows file  names  that
              contain  newlines or other types of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro‐
              grams that process the find output.  This option corresponds to the  -0  option  of
              xargs.

       -printf format
              True;  print format on the standard output, interpreting `\' escapes and `%' direc‐
              tives.  Field widths and precisions can be specified as with the `printf'  C  func‐
              tion.   Please  note  that many of the fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and
              this may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also means that  the
              `-'  flag  does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf
              does not add a newline at the end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an  ordinary  charac‐
              ter, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k, which is either `@' or
                     a directive for the C `strftime' function.  The possible values  for  k  are
                     listed  below;  some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due to
                     differences in `strftime' between systems.

                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with fractional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss.xxxxxxxxxx)

                     +      Date and time, separated by `+', for example `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.
                            This  is  a GNU extension.  The time is given in the current timezone
                            (which may be affected by setting the TZ environment variable).   The
                            seconds field includes a fractional part.

                     X      locale's  time  representation (H:M:S).  The seconds field includes a
                            fractional part.

                     Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).  The format is
                            the  same  as for ctime(3) and so to preserve compatibility with that
                            format, there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks.  Since  disk
                     space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually
                     greater than %s/512, but it can also be smaller if  the  file  is  a  sparse
                     file.

              %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func‐
                     tion.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by k,  which  is  the
                     same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a starting-point.

              %D     The  device  number  on  which  the  file exists (the st_dev field of struct
                     stat), in decimal.

              %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last element).  If the  file
                     name contains no slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h spec‐
                     ifier expands to ".".

              %H     Starting-point under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.  Since disk  space
                     is  allocated  in  multiples  of  the  filesystem block size this is usually
                     greater than %s/1024, but it can also be smaller if the  file  is  a  sparse
                     file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

              %m     File's  permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the `traditional' num‐
                     bers which most Unix implementations use, but if your particular implementa‐
                     tion uses an unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see a dif‐
                     ference between the actual value of the file's mode and the  output  of  %m.
                     Normally  you  will  want  to  have a leading zero on this number, and to do
                     this, you should use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This  directive  is  sup‐
                     ported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's  name  with  the  name of the starting-point under which it was found
                     removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's sparseness.  This is calculated as (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks  /  st_size).
                     The  exact  value  you  will get for an ordinary file of a certain length is
                     system-dependent.  However, normally sparse files will have values less than
                     1.0,  and  files which use indirect blocks may have a value which is greater
                     than 1.0.   The value used for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent, but is usually
                     512  bytes.    If the file size is zero, the value printed is undefined.  On
                     systems which lack support for st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed  to
                     be 1.0.

              %t     File's  last modification time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func‐
                     tion.

              %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by  k,  which  is  the
                     same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

              %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symlinks: L=loop, N=nonexistent

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              %{ %[ %(
                     Reserved for future use.

              A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded, but the other charac‐
              ter is printed (don't rely on this, as further  format  characters  may  be  intro‐
              duced).   A  `%' at the end of the format argument causes undefined behaviour since
              there is no following character.  In some locales, it  may  hide  your  door  keys,
              while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

              The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the other directives do
              not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric directives  that  do  not  support  these
              flags  include  G,  U, b, D, k and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes
              the alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the default) to left-justi‐
              fied.

              See  the  UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in
              filenames are handled.

       -prune True; if the file is a directory, do not descend into  it.   If  -depth  is  given,
              false;  no  effect.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune
              and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but no more paths spec‐
              ified  on  the command line will be processed.  For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar
              -print -quit will print only /tmp/foo.  Any command lines which have been built  up
              with  -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit status may or
              may not be zero, depending on whether an error has already occurred.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force precedence.  Since parentheses are special to the shell,  you  will  normally
              need  to  quote them.  Many of the examples in this manual page use backslashes for
              this purpose: `\(...\)' instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character  will  also  usually  need  protection  from
              interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied "and"; expr2 is not
              evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of expr1 is  discarded;
              the  value of the list is the value of expr2.  The comma operator can be useful for
              searching for several different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem hier‐
              archy only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the various matched items
              into several different output files.

       Please note that -a when specified implicitly (for example by two tests appearing  without
       an  explicit  operator  between  them)  or explicitly has higher precedence than -o.  This
       means that find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will never print afile.

UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under the  control  of
       other  users.   This  includes  file  names, sizes, modification times and so forth.  File
       names are a potential problem since they can contain any character except  `\0'  and  `/'.
       Unusual  characters  in  file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things to your
       terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function  keys  on  some  terminals).
       Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is going to a termi‐
              nal.

       -ls, -fls
              Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,  and  double  quote
              characters  are  printed  using  C-style  escaping (for example `\f', `\"').  Other
              unusual characters are printed using an octal escape.  Other  printable  characters
              (for  -ls and -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are printed
              as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
              If the output is not going to a terminal, it  is  printed  as-is.   Otherwise,  the
              result  depends  on  which directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H,
              %Y, and %y expand to values which are not under control of files'  owners,  and  so
              are  printed  as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t, %u
              and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be
              used  to  send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed as-is.  The
              directives %f, %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
              way  as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for -ls
              and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use for the output of find then
              it  is  normally  better  to  use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file
              names can  contain  white  space  and  newline  characters.   The  setting  of  the
              `LC_CTYPE'  environment  variable  is used to determine which characters need to be
              quoted.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you  are  using
              find  in  a  script  or in a situation where the matched files might have arbitrary
              names, you should consider using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a  future
       release.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For  closest compliance to the POSIX standard, you should set the POSIXLY_CORRECT environ‐
       ment variable.  The following options are  specified  in  the  POSIX  standard  (IEEE  Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the POSIX conformance of
              the system's fnmatch(3) library function.  As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharac‐
              ters  (`*',  `?'  or  `[]' for example) will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC
              interpretation 126 requires this.   This is a  change  from  previous  versions  of
              findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.  GNU find also
              supports `D', representing a Door, where the OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the response is according to the "yes" and "no"  pat‐
              terns  selected  by  setting  the  `LC_MESSAGES'  environment  variable.   When the
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, these patterns  are  taken  system's
              definition  of  a positive (yes) or negative (no) response.  See the system's docu‐
              mentation  for  nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular   YESEXPR   and   NOEXPR.      When
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  is  not set, the patterns are instead taken from find's own mes‐
              sage catalogue.

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is a symbolic link, it  is  always  dereferenced.
              This is a change from previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from
              the symbolic link; see the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not set, some mode argu‐
              ments  (for  example +a+x) which are not valid in POSIX are supported for backward-
              compatibility.

       Other predicates
              The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links, -mtime,  -nogroup,  -nouser,
              -print,  -prune,  -size,  -user  and  -xdev `-atime', `-ctime', `-depth', `-group',
              `-links', `-mtime', `-nogroup', `-nouser', `-perm',  `-print',  `-prune',  `-size',
              `-user' and `-xdev', are all supported.

       The  POSIX  standard  specifies  parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the `and' and `or'
       operators ( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions  beyond  the  POSIX
       standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The  find  utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a previously vis‐
              ited directory that is an ancestor of the last file encountered.  When  it  detects
              an infinite loop, find shall write a diagnostic message to standard error and shall
              either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find complies with these requirements.  The link count of  directories  which  contain
       entries which are hard links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should
       be.  This can mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a  subdirec‐
       tory  which  is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually enter such a
       subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this  behav‐
       iour  may  be somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on this be‐
       haviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the  directory  entry
       will always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued where it is appropriate.
       Symbolic links cannot be used to create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or
       the  -follow  option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a loop
       of symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will  often
       mean  that find knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link,
       so this diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should  use
       the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment  variable does not affect the behaviour of the -regex or
       -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are  unset  or
              null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna‐
              tionalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to  be
              used  for the -name option.   GNU find uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and so
              support for `LC_COLLATE' depends on  the  system  library.     This  variable  also
              affects the interpretation of the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES' variable
              selects the actual pattern used to interpret the response to -ok,  the  interpreta‐
              tion of any bracket expressions in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
              This  variable  affects  the treatment of character classes used in regular expres‐
              sions and also with the -name test, if the  system's  fnmatch(3)  library  function
              supports  this.   This  variable  also  affects the interpretation of any character
              classes in the regular expressions used to interpret the  response  to  the  prompt
              issued  by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which charac‐
              ters are considered to be unprintable when filenames are printed; see  the  section
              UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines   the  locale  to  be  used  for  internationalised  messages.   If  the
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this also determines the interpreta‐
              tion of the response to the prompt made by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.

       PATH   Affects  the  directories  which  are  searched  to find the executables invoked by
              -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_CORRECT is set,  blocks
              are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is, implies -nowarn) by
              default, because POSIX requires that apart from the output for  -ok,  all  messages
              printed on stderr are diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like -perm /zzz if +zzz
              is not a valid symbolic mode.  When POSIXLY_CORRECT is  set,  such  constructs  are
              treated as an error.

              When  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, the response to the prompt made by the -ok action is
              interpreted according to the system's message catalogue, as opposed to according to
              find's own message translations.

       TZ     Affects  the  time  zone  used  for  some  of the time-related format directives of
              -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.  Note that this will
       work  incorrectly if there are any filenames containing newlines, single or double quotes,
       or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing filenames
       in  such  a way that file or directory names containing single or double quotes, spaces or
       newlines are correctly handled.  The -name test comes before the -type test  in  order  to
       avoid having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on every file in or below the current directory.  Notice that the braces are
       enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from interpretation as shell script punctu‐
       ation.   The  semicolon  is  similarly  protected by the use of a backslash, though single
       quotes could have been used in that case also.

       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse  the  filesystem  just  once,  listing  setuid   files   and   directories   into
       /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search  for  files in your home directory which have been modified in the last twenty-four
       hours.  This command works this way because the time since each file was last modified  is
       divided  by 24 hours and any remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a
       file will have to have a modification in the past which is less than 24 hours ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for  their  owner,  and  group,  but
       which  other  users  can  read but not write to.  Files which meet these criteria but have
       other permissions bits set (for example if someone can  execute  the  file)  will  not  be
       matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their owner and group, and which
       other users can read, without regard to the presence of any  extra  permission  bits  (for
       example the executable bit).  This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for  files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group, or anybody
       else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses the octal  represen‐
       tation  of  the  file  mode,  and the other two use the symbolic form.  These commands all
       search for files which are writable by either their owner or their group.  The files don't
       have to be writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both  these  commands do the same thing; search for files which are writable by both their
       owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These two commands both search for files that are readable for everybody ( -perm  -444  or
       -perm  -a+r), have at least one write bit set ( -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not exe‐
       cutable for anybody ( ! -perm /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits files and directo‐
       ries  named  .snapshot  (and  anything in them).  It also omits files or directories whose
       name ends in ~, but not their contents.  The construct -prune -o  \(  ...  -print0  \)  is
       quite common.  The idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
       to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true, so the following -o ensures
       that  the  right hand side is evaluated only for those directories which didn't get pruned
       (the contents of the pruned directories are not even visited, so their contents are irrel‐
       evant).   The expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only for clar‐
       ity.  It emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only for things that  didn't  have
       -prune  applied  to  them.   Because  the default `and' condition between tests binds more
       tightly than -o, this is the default anyway, but the parentheses  help  to  show  what  is
       going on.

       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn \; -or \
       -exec test -d {}/.git \; -or -exec test -d {}/CVS \; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of projects and their associated SCM administrative directo‐
       ries, perform an efficient search for the projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In this example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories  that  have  already
       been  discovered  (for  example  we  do  not  search project3/src because we already found
       project3/.svn), but ensures sibling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if errors
       occur.    This  is  deliberately a very broad description, but if the return value is non-
       zero, you should not rely on the correctness of the results of find.

       When some error occurs, find may stop immediately,  without  completing  all  the  actions
       specified.   For  example, some starting points may not have been examined or some pending
       program invocations for -exec ... {} + or -execdir ... {} + may not have been performed.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1), locatedb(5), updatedb(1), xargs(1), chmod(1),  fnmatch(3),  regex(7),  stat(2),
       lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3)

       The  full  documentation for find is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and find
       programs are properly installed at your site, the command info find should give you access
       to the complete manual.

HISTORY
       As  of  findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) used in file‐
       name patterns will match a leading `.', because IEEE  POSIX  interpretation  126  requires
       this.

       As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a nonzero value when
       it fails.  However, find will not exit immediately.  Previously, find's  exit  status  was
       unaffected by the failure of -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

       The  syntax  -perm  +MODE  was removed in findutils-4.5.12, in favour of -perm /MODE.  The
       +MODE syntax had been deprecated since findutils-4.2.21 which was released in 2005.

NON-BUGS
   Operator precedence surprises
       The command find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will never print afile  because  this
       is  actually  equivalent  to  find . -name afile -o \( -name bfile -a -print \).  Remember
       that the precedence of -a is higher than that of -o and when there is no  operator  speci‐
       fied between tests, -a is assumed.

   “paths must precede expression” error message
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D ... [path...] [expression]

       This happens because *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in find actually receiv‐
       ing a command line like this:
       find . -name frcode.c locate.c word_io.c -print
       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things this way, you should
       enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the wildcard:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print

BUGS
       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX standard specifies
       for find, which therefore cannot be fixed.  For example, the -exec  action  is  inherently
       insecure, and -execdir should be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more informa‐
       tion.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The   best   way   to   report   a   bug   is   to   use   the   form   at   http://savan‐
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The  reason for this is that you will then be able to
       track progress in fixing the problem.   Other comments about find(1) and about the  findu‐
       tils  package in general can be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list,
       send email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

                                                                                          FIND(1)

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