GIT-REBASE(1) Git Manual GIT-REBASE(1)
git-rebase - Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head
git rebase [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec ] [--onto ]
git rebase [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec ] [--onto ]
git rebase --continue | --skip | --abort | --edit-todo
If is specified, git rebase will perform an automatic git checkout
before doing anything else. Otherwise it remains on the current branch.
If is not specified, the upstream configured in branch..remote and
branch..merge options will be used (see git-config(1) for details) and the
--fork-point option is assumed. If you are currently not on any branch or if the current
branch does not have a configured upstream, the rebase will abort.
All changes made by commits in the current branch but that are not in are saved
to a temporary area. This is the same set of commits that would be shown by git log
..HEAD; or by git log 'fork_point'..HEAD, if --fork-point is active (see the
description on --fork-point below); or by git log HEAD, if the --root option is specified.
The current branch is reset to , or if the --onto option was supplied.
This has the exact same effect as git reset --hard (or ). ORIG_HEAD is
set to point at the tip of the branch before the reset.
The commits that were previously saved into the temporary area are then reapplied to the
current branch, one by one, in order. Note that any commits in HEAD which introduce the
same textual changes as a commit in HEAD.. are omitted (i.e., a patch already
accepted upstream with a different commit message or timestamp will be skipped).
It is possible that a merge failure will prevent this process from being completely
automatic. You will have to resolve any such merge failure and run git rebase --continue.
Another option is to bypass the commit that caused the merge failure with git rebase
--skip. To check out the original and remove the .git/rebase-apply working files,
use the command git rebase --abort instead.
Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "topic":
From this point, the result of either of the following commands:
git rebase master
git rebase master topic
NOTE: The latter form is just a short-hand of git checkout topic followed by git rebase
master. When rebase exits topic will remain the checked-out branch.
If the upstream branch already contains a change you have made (e.g., because you mailed a
patch which was applied upstream), then that commit will be skipped. For example, running
git rebase master on the following history (in which A' and A introduce the same set of
changes, but have different committer information):
will result in:
Here is how you would transplant a topic branch based on one branch to another, to pretend
that you forked the topic branch from the latter branch, using rebase --onto.
First let’s assume your topic is based on branch next. For example, a feature developed in
topic depends on some functionality which is found in next.
We want to make topic forked from branch master; for example, because the functionality on
which topic depends was merged into the more stable master branch. We want our tree to
look like this:
| o'--o'--o' topic
We can get this using the following command:
git rebase --onto master next topic
Another example of --onto option is to rebase part of a branch. If we have the following
then the command
git rebase --onto master topicA topicB
would result in:
| E---F---G topicA
This is useful when topicB does not depend on topicA.
A range of commits could also be removed with rebase. If we have the following situation:
then the command
git rebase --onto topicA~5 topicA~3 topicA
would result in the removal of commits F and G:
This is useful if F and G were flawed in some way, or should not be part of topicA. Note
that the argument to --onto and the parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
In case of conflict, git rebase will stop at the first problematic commit and leave
conflict markers in the tree. You can use git diff to locate the markers (<<<<<<) and make
edits to resolve the conflict. For each file you edit, you need to tell Git that the
conflict has been resolved, typically this would be done with
After resolving the conflict manually and updating the index with the desired resolution,
you can continue the rebasing process with
git rebase --continue
Alternatively, you can undo the git rebase with
git rebase --abort
Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase. False by
If set to true enable --autosquash option by default.
If set to true enable --autostash option by default.
If set to "warn", print warnings about removed commits in interactive mode. If set to
"error", print the warnings and stop the rebase. If set to "ignore", no checking is
done. "ignore" by default.
Custom commit list format to use during an --interactive rebase.
Starting point at which to create the new commits. If the --onto option is not
specified, the starting point is . May be any valid commit, and not just an
existing branch name.
As a special case, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut for the merge base of A and B if
there is exactly one merge base. You can leave out at most one of A and B, in which
case it defaults to HEAD.
Upstream branch to compare against. May be any valid commit, not just an existing
branch name. Defaults to the configured upstream for the current branch.
Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
Restart the rebasing process after having resolved a merge conflict.
Abort the rebase operation and reset HEAD to the original branch. If was
provided when the rebase operation was started, then HEAD will be reset to .
Otherwise HEAD will be reset to where it was when the rebase operation was started.
Keep the commits that do not change anything from its parents in the result.
Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
Edit the todo list during an interactive rebase.
Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge strategy is used,
this allows rebase to be aware of renames on the upstream side.
Note that a rebase merge works by replaying each commit from the working branch on top
of the branch. Because of this, when a merge conflict happens, the side
reported as ours is the so-far rebased series, starting with , and theirs is
the working branch. In other words, the sides are swapped.
-s , --strategy=
Use the given merge strategy. If there is no -s option git merge-recursive is used
instead. This implies --merge.
Because git rebase replays each commit from the working branch on top of the
branch using the given strategy, using the ours strategy simply discards
all patches from the , which makes little sense.
-X , --strategy-option=
Pass the through to the merge strategy. This implies --merge and, if
no strategy has been specified, -s recursive. Note the reversal of ours and theirs as
noted above for the -m option.
GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the committer
identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option without a space.
Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.
Be verbose. Implies --stat.
Show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase. The diffstat is also
controlled by the configuration option rebase.stat.
Do not show a diffstat as part of the rebase process.
This option bypasses the pre-rebase hook. See also githooks(5).
Allows the pre-rebase hook to run, which is the default. This option can be used to
override --no-verify. See also githooks(5).
Ensure at least lines of surrounding context match before and after each change.
When fewer lines of surrounding context exist they all must match. By default no
context is ever ignored.
Force a rebase even if the current branch is up-to-date and the command without
--force would return without doing anything.
You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after reverting a
topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it
can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
revert-a-faulty-merge How-To for details).
Use reflog to find a better common ancestor between and when
calculating which commits have been introduced by .
When --fork-point is active, fork_point will be used instead of to
calculate the set of commits to rebase, where fork_point is the result of git
merge-base --fork-point command (see git-merge-base(1)). If
fork_point ends up being empty, the will be used as a fallback.
If either or --root is given on the command line, then the default is
--no-fork-point, otherwise the default is --fork-point.