<root
READLINE(3)                          Library Functions Manual                         READLINE(3)

NAME
       readline - get a line from a user with editing

SYNOPSIS
       #include 
       #include 
       #include 

       char *
       readline (const char *prompt);

COPYRIGHT
       Readline is Copyright (C) 1989-2011 Free Software Foundation,  Inc.

DESCRIPTION
       readline  will  read a line from the terminal and return it, using prompt as a prompt.  If
       prompt is NULL or the empty string, no prompt is issued.  The line returned  is  allocated
       with  malloc(3);  the  caller must free it when finished.  The line returned has the final
       newline removed, so only the text of the line remains.

       readline offers editing capabilities while the user is entering the line.  By default, the
       line editing commands are similar to those of emacs.  A vi-style line editing interface is
       also available.

       This manual page describes only the most basic use of readline.  Much  more  functionality
       is  available;  see  The  GNU  Readline Library and The GNU History Library for additional
       information.

RETURN VALUE
       readline returns the text of the line read.  A blank line returns the  empty  string.   If
       EOF  is  encountered while reading a line, and the line is empty, NULL is returned.  If an
       EOF is read with a non-empty line, it is treated as a newline.

NOTATION
       An Emacs-style notation is used to denote keystrokes.  Control keys are denoted by  C-key,
       e.g.,  C-n  means  Control-N.   Similarly,  meta  keys  are denoted by M-key, so M-x means
       Meta-X.  (On keyboards without a meta key, M-x means ESC x, i.e.,  press  the  Escape  key
       then  the  x  key.   This makes ESC the meta prefix.  The combination M-C-x means ESC-Con‐
       trol-x, or press the Escape key then hold the Control key while pressing the x key.)

       Readline commands may be given numeric arguments, which normally act as  a  repeat  count.
       Sometimes,  however,  it is the sign of the argument that is significant.  Passing a nega‐
       tive argument to a command that acts in the forward  direction  (e.g.,  kill-line)  causes
       that command to act in a backward direction.  Commands whose behavior with arguments devi‐
       ates from this are noted.

       When a command is described as killing text, the text deleted is saved for possible future
       retrieval  (yanking).   The  killed text is saved in a kill ring.  Consecutive kills cause
       the text to be accumulated into one unit, which can be yanked all at once.  Commands which
       do not kill text separate the chunks of text on the kill ring.

INITIALIZATION FILE
       Readline  is  customized by putting commands in an initialization file (the inputrc file).
       The name of this file is taken from the value of the  INPUTRC  environment  variable.   If
       that variable is unset, the default is ~/.inputrc.  If that file  does not exist or cannot
       be read, the ultimate default is /etc/inputrc.  When a program  which  uses  the  readline
       library  starts  up,  the  init  file is read, and the key bindings and variables are set.
       There are only a few basic constructs allowed in the readline init file.  Blank lines  are
       ignored.  Lines beginning with a # are comments.  Lines beginning with a $ indicate condi‐
       tional constructs.  Other lines denote key bindings and variable settings.   Each  program
       using this library may add its own commands and bindings.

       For example, placing

              M-Control-u: universal-argument
       or
              C-Meta-u: universal-argument

       into the inputrc would make M-C-u execute the readline command universal-argument.

       The  following symbolic character names are recognized while processing key bindings: DEL,
       ESC, ESCAPE, LFD, NEWLINE, RET, RETURN, RUBOUT, SPACE, SPC, and TAB.

       In addition to command names, readline allows keys  to  be  bound  to  a  string  that  is
       inserted when the key is pressed (a macro).

   Key Bindings
       The  syntax  for  controlling  key  bindings  in  the inputrc file is simple.  All that is
       required is the name of the command or the text of a macro and a key sequence to which  it
       should  be  bound.  The  name may be specified in one of two ways: as a symbolic key name,
       possibly with Meta- or Control- prefixes, or as a key sequence.  The name and key sequence
       are separated by a colon.  There can be no whitespace between the name and the colon.

       When  using  the form keyname:function-name or macro, keyname is the name of a key spelled
       out in English.  For example:

              Control-u: universal-argument
              Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
              Control-o: "> output"

       In the above example, C-u is bound to the function universal-argument, M-DEL is  bound  to
       the  function backward-kill-word, and C-o is bound to run the macro expressed on the right
       hand side (that is, to insert the text ``> output'' into the line).

       In the second form, "keyseq":function-name or macro, keyseq differs from keyname above  in
       that  strings  denoting  an  entire  key sequence may be specified by placing the sequence
       within double quotes.  Some GNU Emacs style key escapes can be used, as in  the  following
       example, but the symbolic character names are not recognized.

              "\C-u": universal-argument
              "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
              "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

       In  this example, C-u is again bound to the function universal-argument.  C-x C-r is bound
       to the function re-read-init-file, and ESC [ 1 1 ~ is bound to insert the text  ``Function
       Key 1''.

       The  full  set of GNU Emacs style escape sequences available when specifying key sequences
       is
              \C-    control prefix
              \M-    meta prefix
              \e     an escape character
              \\     backslash
              \"     literal ", a double quote
              \'     literal ', a single quote

       In addition to the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a second set of backslash escapes  is
       available:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \d     delete
              \f     form feed
              \n     newline
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \nnn   the  eight-bit  character  whose  value is the octal value nnn (one to three
                     digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value is the hexadecimal value HH (one or  two
                     hex digits)

       When  entering  the  text of a macro, single or double quotes should be used to indicate a
       macro definition.  Unquoted text is assumed to be a function name.  In the macro body, the
       backslash  escapes described above are expanded.  Backslash will quote any other character
       in the macro text, including " and '.

       Bash allows the current readline key bindings to be displayed or modified  with  the  bind
       builtin  command.  The editing mode may be switched during interactive use by using the -o
       option to the set builtin command.  Other programs  using  this  library  provide  similar
       mechanisms.   The inputrc file may be edited and re-read if a program does not provide any
       other means to incorporate new bindings.

   Variables
       Readline has variables that can be used to further customize its behavior.  A variable may
       be set in the inputrc file with a statement of the form

              set variable-name value

       Except  where  noted,  readline variables can take the values On or Off (without regard to
       case).  Unrecognized variable names are ignored.  When a variable value is read, empty  or
       null  values, "on" (case-insensitive), and "1" are equivalent to On.  All other values are
       equivalent to Off.  The variables and their default values are:

       bell-style (audible)
              Controls what happens when readline wants to ring the terminal  bell.   If  set  to
              none,  readline  never  rings the bell.  If set to visible, readline uses a visible
              bell if one is available.  If set to audible, readline attempts to ring the  termi‐
              nal's bell.
       bind-tty-special-chars (On)
              If set to On, readline attempts to bind the control characters treated specially by
              the kernel's terminal driver to their readline equivalents.
       colored-stats (Off)
              If set to On, readline displays possible  completions  using  different  colors  to
              indicate  their  file  type.  The color definitions are taken from the value of the
              LS_COLORS environment variable.
       comment-begin (``#'')
              The string that is inserted in vi mode when the insert-comment command is executed.
              This command is bound to M-# in emacs mode and to # in vi command mode.
       completion-display-width (-1)
              The  number of screen columns used to display possible matches when performing com‐
              pletion.  The value is ignored if it is less than 0 or greater  than  the  terminal
              screen  width.   A value of 0 will cause matches to be displayed one per line.  The
              default value is -1.
       completion-ignore-case (Off)
              If set to On, readline performs filename matching and completion in a case-insensi‐
              tive fashion.
       completion-map-case (Off)
              If  set  to  On, and completion-ignore-case is enabled, readline treats hyphens (-)
              and underscores (_) as equivalent when performing case-insensitive filename  match‐
              ing and completion.
       completion-prefix-display-length (0)
              The  length  in  characters  of the common prefix of a list of possible completions
              that is displayed without modification.  When set to a  value  greater  than  zero,
              common  prefixes longer than this value are replaced with an ellipsis when display‐
              ing possible completions.
       completion-query-items (100)
              This determines when the user is queried about viewing the number of possible  com‐
              pletions generated by the possible-completions command.  It may be set to any inte‐
              ger value greater than or equal to zero.  If the number of possible completions  is
              greater  than  or equal to the value of this variable, the user is asked whether or
              not he wishes to view them; otherwise they are simply listed on  the  terminal.   A
              negative value causes readline to never ask.
       convert-meta (On)
              If  set to On, readline will convert characters with the eighth bit set to an ASCII
              key sequence by stripping the eighth bit and prefixing it with an escape  character
              (in effect, using escape as the meta prefix).
       disable-completion (Off)
              If set to On, readline will inhibit word completion.  Completion characters will be
              inserted into the line as if they had been mapped to self-insert.
       editing-mode (emacs)
              Controls whether readline begins with a set of key bindings similar to Emacs or vi.
              editing-mode can be set to either emacs or vi.
       echo-control-characters (On)
              When set to On, on operating systems that indicate they support it, readline echoes
              a character corresponding to a signal generated from the keyboard.
       enable-keypad (Off)
              When set to On, readline will try to enable  the  application  keypad  when  it  is
              called.  Some systems need this to enable the arrow keys.
       enable-meta-key (On)
              When  set  to  On,  readline  will try to enable any meta modifier key the terminal
              claims to support when it is called.  On many terminals, the meta key  is  used  to
              send eight-bit characters.
       expand-tilde (Off)
              If set to On, tilde expansion is performed when readline attempts word completion.
       history-preserve-point (Off)
              If set to On, the history code attempts to place point at the same location on each
              history line retrieved with previous-history or next-history.
       history-size (0)
              Set the maximum number of history entries saved in the history  list.   If  set  to
              zero,  any  existing  history entries are deleted and no new entries are saved.  If
              set to a value less than zero, the number of history entries is  not  limited.   By
              default, the number of history entries is not limited.
       horizontal-scroll-mode (Off)
              When  set  to On, makes readline use a single line for display, scrolling the input
              horizontally on a single screen line when it becomes longer than the  screen  width
              rather than wrapping to a new line.
       input-meta (Off)
              If  set to On, readline will enable eight-bit input (that is, it will not clear the
              eighth bit in the characters it reads), regardless of what the terminal  claims  it
              can support.  The name meta-flag is a synonym for this variable.
       isearch-terminators (``C-[ C-J'')
              The string of characters that should terminate an incremental search without subse‐
              quently executing the character as a command.  If this variable has not been  given
              a value, the characters ESC and C-J will terminate an incremental search.
       keymap (emacs)
              Set  the  current  readline keymap.  The set of legal keymap names is emacs, emacs-
              standard, emacs-meta, emacs-ctlx, vi, vi-move, vi-command, and  vi-insert.   vi  is
              equivalent to vi-command; emacs is equivalent to emacs-standard.  The default value
              is emacs.  The value of editing-mode also affects the default keymap.
       keyseq-timeout (500)
              Specifies the duration readline will wait for a character when reading an ambiguous
              key  sequence  (one  that  can form a complete key sequence using the input read so
              far, or can take additional input to complete a longer key sequence).  If no  input
              is  received  within  the  timeout,  readline will use the shorter but complete key
              sequence.  The value is specified in milliseconds, so a value of  1000  means  that
              readline  will  wait one second for additional input.  If this variable is set to a
              value less than or equal to zero, or to a non-numeric  value,  readline  will  wait
              until another key is pressed to decide which key sequence to complete.
       mark-directories (On)
              If set to On, completed directory names have a slash appended.
       mark-modified-lines (Off)
              If  set to On, history lines that have been modified are displayed with a preceding
              asterisk (*).
       mark-symlinked-directories (Off)
              If set to On, completed names which are symbolic links to directories have a  slash
              appended (subject to the value of mark-directories).
       match-hidden-files (On)
              This  variable,  when  set  to On, causes readline to match files whose names begin
              with a `.' (hidden files) when performing filename completion.  If set to Off,  the
              leading `.' must be supplied by the user in the filename to be completed.
       menu-complete-display-prefix (Off)
              If  set  to  On, menu completion displays the common prefix of the list of possible
              completions (which may be empty) before cycling through the list.
       output-meta (Off)
              If set to On, readline will display characters with the  eighth  bit  set  directly
              rather than as a meta-prefixed escape sequence.
       page-completions (On)
              If  set  to On, readline uses an internal more-like pager to display a screenful of
              possible completions at a time.
       print-completions-horizontally (Off)
              If set to On, readline will display completions with matches sorted horizontally in
              alphabetical order, rather than down the screen.
       revert-all-at-newline (Off)
              If set to On, readline will undo all changes to history lines before returning when
              accept-line is executed.  By default, history lines  may  be  modified  and  retain
              individual undo lists across calls to readline.
       show-all-if-ambiguous (Off)
              This  alters the default behavior of the completion functions.  If set to On, words
              which have more than one possible completion cause the matches to be listed immedi‐
              ately instead of ringing the bell.
       show-all-if-unmodified (Off)
              This  alters  the default behavior of the completion functions in a fashion similar
              to show-all-if-ambiguous.  If set to On, words which have more  than  one  possible
              completion  without any possible partial completion (the possible completions don't
              share a common prefix) cause the matches to be listed immediately instead of  ring‐
              ing the bell.
       show-mode-in-prompt (Off)
              If set to On, add a character to the beginning of the prompt indicating the editing
              mode: emacs (@), vi command (:) or vi insertion (+).
       skip-completed-text (Off)
              If set to On, this alters the default completion behavior when inserting  a  single
              match  into the line.  It's only active when performing completion in the middle of
              a word.  If enabled, readline does not insert characters from the  completion  that
              match  characters  after point in the word being completed, so portions of the word
              following the cursor are not duplicated.
       visible-stats (Off)
              If set to On, a character denoting a file's type as reported by stat(2) is appended
              to the filename when listing possible completions.

   Conditional Constructs
       Readline  implements  a facility similar in spirit to the conditional compilation features
       of the C preprocessor which allows key bindings and variable settings to be  performed  as
       the result of tests.  There are four parser directives used.

       $if    The  $if construct allows bindings to be made based on the editing mode, the termi‐
              nal being used, or the application using readline.  The text of the test extends to
              the end of the line; no characters are required to isolate it.

              mode   The  mode=  form of the $if directive is used to test whether readline is in
                     emacs or vi mode.  This may be used in conjunction with the set keymap  com‐
                     mand,  for  instance,  to  set bindings in the emacs-standard and emacs-ctlx
                     keymaps only if readline is starting out in emacs mode.

              term   The term= form may be used to include terminal-specific key  bindings,  per‐
                     haps  to bind the key sequences output by the terminal's function keys.  The
                     word on the right side of the = is tested against the full name of the  ter‐
                     minal  and the portion of the terminal name before the first -.  This allows
                     sun to match both sun and sun-cmd, for instance.

              application
                     The application construct is used to include application-specific  settings.
                     Each  program  using  the readline library sets the application name, and an
                     initialization file can test for a particular value.  This could be used  to
                     bind  key  sequences  to  functions  useful  for  a  specific  program.  For
                     instance, the following command adds a key sequence that quotes the  current
                     or previous word in bash:

                     $if Bash
                     # Quote the current or previous word
                     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
                     $endif

       $endif This command, as seen in the previous example, terminates an $if command.

       $else  Commands in this branch of the $if directive are executed if the test fails.

       $include
              This  directive takes a single filename as an argument and reads commands and bind‐
              ings from that file.  For example, the following directive would read /etc/inputrc:

              $include  /etc/inputrc

SEARCHING
       Readline provides commands for searching through the command history for lines  containing
       a specified string.  There are two search modes: incremental and non-incremental.

       Incremental searches begin before the user has finished typing the search string.  As each
       character of the search string is typed, readline displays the next entry from the history
       matching  the string typed so far.  An incremental search requires only as many characters
       as needed to find the desired history entry.  To search backward in the history for a par‐
       ticular  string,  type C-r.  Typing C-s searches forward through the history.  The charac‐
       ters present in the value of the isearch-terminators variable are  used  to  terminate  an
       incremental  search.   If  that  variable has not been assigned a value the Escape and C-J
       characters will terminate an incremental search.  C-G will abort an incremental search and
       restore  the  original  line.  When the search is terminated, the history entry containing
       the search string becomes the current line.

       To find other matching entries in the history list, type C-s or C-r as appropriate.   This
       will  search  backward  or  forward  in  the history for the next line matching the search
       string typed so far.  Any other key sequence bound to a readline  command  will  terminate
       the  search  and  execute that command.  For instance, a newline will terminate the search
       and accept the line, thereby executing the command from the history list.  A movement com‐
       mand will terminate the search, make the last line found the current line, and begin edit‐
       ing.

       Non-incremental searches read the entire search  string  before  starting  to  search  for
       matching history lines.  The search string may be typed by the user or be part of the con‐
       tents of the current line.

EDITING COMMANDS
       The following is a list of the names of the commands and  the  default  key  sequences  to
       which  they  are bound.  Command names without an accompanying key sequence are unbound by
       default.

       In the following descriptions, point refers to  the  current  cursor  position,  and  mark
       refers to a cursor position saved by the set-mark command.  The text between the point and
       mark is referred to as the region.

   Commands for Moving
       beginning-of-line (C-a)
              Move to the start of the current line.
       end-of-line (C-e)
              Move to the end of the line.
       forward-char (C-f)
              Move forward a character.
       backward-char (C-b)
              Move back a character.
       forward-word (M-f)
              Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words are composed of alphanumeric char‐
              acters (letters and digits).
       backward-word (M-b)
              Move  back  to  the  start  of the current or previous word.  Words are composed of
              alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       clear-screen (C-l)
              Clear the screen leaving the current line at the top of the screen.  With an  argu‐
              ment, refresh the current line without clearing the screen.
       redraw-current-line
              Refresh the current line.

   Commands for Manipulating the History
       accept-line (Newline, Return)
              Accept  the  line regardless of where the cursor is.  If this line is non-empty, it
              may be added to the history list for future recall with add_history().  If the line
              is a modified history line, the history line is restored to its original state.
       previous-history (C-p)
              Fetch the previous command from the history list, moving back in the list.
       next-history (C-n)
              Fetch the next command from the history list, moving forward in the list.
       beginning-of-history (M-<)
              Move to the first line in the history.
       end-of-history (M->)
              Move to the end of the input history, i.e., the line currently being entered.
       reverse-search-history (C-r)
              Search backward starting at the current line and moving `up' through the history as
              necessary.  This is an incremental search.
       forward-search-history (C-s)
              Search forward starting at the current line and moving `down' through  the  history
              as necessary.  This is an incremental search.
       non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)
              Search backward through the history starting at the current line using a non-incre‐
              mental search for a string supplied by the user.
       non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)
              Search forward through the history using a non-incremental search for a string sup‐
              plied by the user.
       history-search-backward
              Search  backward through the history for the string of characters between the start
              of the current line and the current cursor position (the point).  The search string
              must match at the beginning of a history line.  This is a non-incremental search.
       history-search-forward
              Search  forward  through the history for the string of characters between the start
              of the current line and the point.  The search string must match at  the  beginning
              of a history line.  This is a non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-backward
              Search  backward through the history for the string of characters between the start
              of the current line and the current cursor position (the point).  The search string
              may match anywhere in a history line.  This is a non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-forward
              Search  forward  through the history for the string of characters between the start
              of the current line and the point.  The search string may match anywhere in a  his‐
              tory line.  This is a non-incremental search.
       yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)
              Insert  the  first argument to the previous command (usually the second word on the
              previous line) at point.  With an argument n, insert the nth word from the previous
              command (the words in the previous command begin with word 0).  A negative argument
              inserts the nth word from the end of the previous command.  Once the argument n  is
              computed, the argument is extracted as if the "!n" history expansion had been spec‐
              ified.
       yank-last-arg (M-., M-_)
              Insert the last argument to the previous command (the last  word  of  the  previous
              history  entry).   With a numeric argument, behave exactly like yank-nth-arg.  Suc‐
              cessive calls to yank-last-arg move back through the history  list,  inserting  the
              last word (or the word specified by the argument to the first call) of each line in
              turn.  Any numeric argument supplied  to  these  successive  calls  determines  the
              direction  to move through the history.  A negative argument switches the direction
              through the history (back or forward).  The history expansion facilities  are  used
              to extract the last argument, as if the "!$" history expansion had been specified.

   Commands for Changing Text
       end-of-file (usually C-d)
              The  character  indicating  end-of-file  as set, for example, by ``stty''.  If this
              character is read when there are no characters on the line, and  point  is  at  the
              beginning of the line, Readline interprets it as the end of input and returns EOF.
       delete-char (C-d)
              Delete  the character at point.  If this function is bound to the same character as
              the tty EOF character, as C-d commonly is, see above for the effects.
       backward-delete-char (Rubout)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.  When given a numeric  argument,  save  the
              deleted text on the kill ring.
       forward-backward-delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor, unless the cursor is at the end of the line,
              in which case the character behind the cursor is deleted.
       quoted-insert (C-q, C-v)
              Add the next character that you type to the line verbatim.  This is how  to  insert
              characters like C-q, for example.
       tab-insert (M-TAB)
              Insert a tab character.
       self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)
              Insert the character typed.
       transpose-chars (C-t)
              Drag  the  character before point forward over the character at point, moving point
              forward as well.  If point is at the end of the line, then this transposes the  two
              characters before point.  Negative arguments have no effect.
       transpose-words (M-t)
              Drag  the  word before point past the word after point, moving point over that word
              as well.  If point is at the end of the line, this transposes the last two words on
              the line.
       upcase-word (M-u)
              Uppercase the current (or following) word.  With a negative argument, uppercase the
              previous word, but do not move point.
       downcase-word (M-l)
              Lowercase the current (or following) word.  With a negative argument, lowercase the
              previous word, but do not move point.
       capitalize-word (M-c)
              Capitalize  the  current (or following) word.  With a negative argument, capitalize
              the previous word, but do not move point.
       overwrite-mode
              Toggle overwrite mode.  With an explicit positive  numeric  argument,  switches  to
              overwrite mode.  With an explicit non-positive numeric argument, switches to insert
              mode.  This command affects only emacs mode; vi mode  does  overwrite  differently.
              Each call to readline() starts in insert mode.  In overwrite mode, characters bound
              to self-insert replace the text at point rather than pushing the text to the right.
              Characters  bound to backward-delete-char replace the character before point with a
              space.  By default, this command is unbound.

   Killing and Yanking
       kill-line (C-k)
              Kill the text from point to the end of the line.
       backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)
              Kill backward to the beginning of the line.
       unix-line-discard (C-u)
              Kill backward from point to the beginning of the line.  The killed text is saved on
              the kill-ring.
       kill-whole-line
              Kill all characters on the current line, no matter where point is.
       kill-word (M-d)
              Kill from point the end of the current word, or if between words, to the end of the
              next word.  Word boundaries are the same as those used by forward-word.
       backward-kill-word (M-Rubout)
              Kill the word behind point.  Word boundaries are the same as those  used  by  back‐
              ward-word.
       unix-word-rubout (C-w)
              Kill  the word behind point, using white space as a word boundary.  The killed text
              is saved on the kill-ring.
       unix-filename-rubout
              Kill the word behind point, using white space and the slash character as  the  word
              boundaries.  The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       delete-horizontal-space (M-\)
              Delete all spaces and tabs around point.
       kill-region
              Kill  the  text  between  the point and mark (saved cursor position).  This text is
              referred to as the region.
       copy-region-as-kill
              Copy the text in the region to the kill buffer.
       copy-backward-word
              Copy the word before point to the kill buffer.  The word boundaries are the same as
              backward-word.
       copy-forward-word
              Copy the word following point to the kill buffer.  The word boundaries are the same
              as forward-word.
       yank (C-y)
              Yank the top of the kill ring into the buffer at point.
       yank-pop (M-y)
              Rotate the kill ring, and yank the new top.  Only works following yank or yank-pop.

   Numeric Arguments
       digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ..., M--)
              Add this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start a new argument.   M--
              starts a negative argument.
       universal-argument
              This  is another way to specify an argument.  If this command is followed by one or
              more digits, optionally with a leading minus sign, those digits  define  the  argu‐
              ment.   If  the  command  is followed by digits, executing universal-argument again
              ends the numeric argument, but is otherwise ignored.  As a special  case,  if  this
              command  is  immediately  followed  by a character that is neither a digit or minus
              sign, the argument count for the next command is multiplied by four.  The  argument
              count  is  initially one, so executing this function the first time makes the argu‐
              ment count four, a second time makes the argument count sixteen, and so on.

   Completing
       complete (TAB)
              Attempt to perform completion on the text before point.  The actual completion per‐
              formed  is  application-specific.  Bash, for instance, attempts completion treating
              the text as a variable (if the text begins with $), username (if  the  text  begins
              with  ~),  hostname  (if the text begins with @), or command (including aliases and
              functions) in turn.  If none of these produces  a  match,  filename  completion  is
              attempted.   Gdb,  on  the  other  hand, allows completion of program functions and
              variables, and only attempts filename completion under certain circumstances.
       possible-completions (M-?)
              List the possible completions of the text before point.   When  displaying  comple‐
              tions, readline sets the number of columns used for display to the value of comple‐
              tion-display-width, the value of the environment variable COLUMNS,  or  the  screen
              width, in that order.
       insert-completions (M-*)
              Insert  all  completions of the text before point that would have been generated by
              possible-completions.
       menu-complete
              Similar to complete, but replaces the word to be completed with a single match from
              the  list  of  possible  completions.   Repeated  execution  of menu-complete steps
              through the list of possible completions, inserting each match in turn.  At the end
              of the list of completions, the bell is rung (subject to the setting of bell-style)
              and the original text is restored.  An argument of n moves n positions  forward  in
              the  list  of matches; a negative argument may be used to move backward through the
              list.  This command is intended to be bound to TAB, but is unbound by default.
       menu-complete-backward
              Identical to menu-complete, but moves backward through the list of possible comple‐
              tions,  as  if  menu-complete  had been given a negative argument.  This command is
              unbound by default.
       delete-char-or-list
              Deletes the character under the cursor if not at the beginning or end of  the  line
              (like  delete-char).   If  at the end of the line, behaves identically to possible-
              completions.

   Keyboard Macros
       start-kbd-macro (C-x ()
              Begin saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro.
       end-kbd-macro (C-x ))
              Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro and store the def‐
              inition.
       call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)
              Re-execute  the  last keyboard macro defined, by making the characters in the macro
              appear as if typed at the keyboard.  print-last-kbd-macro () Print  the  last  key‐
              board macro defined in a format suitable for the inputrc file.

   Miscellaneous
       re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)
              Read  in the contents of the inputrc file, and incorporate any bindings or variable
              assignments found there.
       abort (C-g)
              Abort the current editing command and ring the terminal's bell (subject to the set‐
              ting of bell-style).
       do-uppercase-version (M-a, M-b, M-x, ...)
              If the metafied character x is lowercase, run the command that is bound to the cor‐
              responding uppercase character.
       prefix-meta (ESC)
              Metafy the next character typed.  ESC f is equivalent to Meta-f.
       undo (C-_, C-x C-u)
              Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.
       revert-line (M-r)
              Undo all changes made to this line.  This is like executing the undo command enough
              times to return the line to its initial state.
       tilde-expand (M-&)
              Perform tilde expansion on the current word.
       set-mark (C-@, M-)
              Set  the  mark to the point.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the mark is set to
              that position.
       exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)
              Swap the point with the mark.  The current cursor position  is  set  to  the  saved
              position, and the old cursor position is saved as the mark.
       character-search (C-])
              A character is read and point is moved to the next occurrence of that character.  A
              negative count searches for previous occurrences.
       character-search-backward (M-C-])
              A character is read and point is moved to the previous occurrence of  that  charac‐
              ter.  A negative count searches for subsequent occurrences.
       skip-csi-sequence
              Read  enough  characters  to consume a multi-key sequence such as those defined for
              keys like Home and End.  Such sequences begin with  a  Control  Sequence  Indicator
              (CSI),  usually  ESC-[.   If  this  sequence  is bound to "\[", keys producing such
              sequences will have no effect  unless  explicitly  bound  to  a  readline  command,
              instead  of inserting stray characters into the editing buffer.  This is unbound by
              default, but usually bound to ESC-[.
       insert-comment (M-#)
              Without a numeric argument, the value of the  readline  comment-begin  variable  is
              inserted  at the beginning of the current line.  If a numeric argument is supplied,
              this command acts as a toggle:  if the characters at the beginning of the  line  do
              not  match the value of comment-begin, the value is inserted, otherwise the charac‐
              ters in comment-begin are deleted from the beginning of the line.  In either  case,
              the  line  is  accepted  as if a newline had been typed.  The default value of com‐
              ment-begin makes the current line a shell comment.  If a  numeric  argument  causes
              the comment character to be removed, the line will be executed by the shell.
       dump-functions
              Print  all  of  the functions and their key bindings to the readline output stream.
              If a numeric argument is supplied, the output is formatted in such a  way  that  it
              can be made part of an inputrc file.
       dump-variables
              Print all of the settable variables and their values to the readline output stream.
              If a numeric argument is supplied, the output is formatted in such a  way  that  it
              can be made part of an inputrc file.
       dump-macros
              Print  all  of the readline key sequences bound to macros and the strings they out‐
              put.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the output is formatted in such a way that
              it can be made part of an inputrc file.
       emacs-editing-mode (C-e)
              When in vi command mode, this causes a switch to emacs editing mode.
       vi-editing-mode (M-C-j)
              When in emacs editing mode, this causes a switch to vi editing mode.

DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS
       The  following is a list of the default emacs and vi bindings.  Characters with the eighth
       bit set are written as M-, and are referred to  as  metafied  characters.   The
       printable  ASCII characters not mentioned in the list of emacs standard bindings are bound
       to the self-insert function, which just inserts the given character into the  input  line.
       In  vi insertion mode, all characters not specifically mentioned are bound to self-insert.
       Characters assigned to signal generation by stty(1) or the terminal driver, such as C-Z or
       C-C, retain that function.  Upper and lower case metafied characters are bound to the same
       function in the emacs mode meta keymap.   The  remaining  characters  are  unbound,  which
       causes readline to ring the bell (subject to the setting of the bell-style variable).

   Emacs Mode
             Emacs Standard bindings

             "C-@"  set-mark
             "C-A"  beginning-of-line
             "C-B"  backward-char
             "C-D"  delete-char
             "C-E"  end-of-line
             "C-F"  forward-char
             "C-G"  abort
             "C-H"  backward-delete-char
             "C-I"  complete
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-K"  kill-line
             "C-L"  clear-screen
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-N"  next-history
             "C-P"  previous-history
             "C-Q"  quoted-insert
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-]"  character-search
             "C-_"  undo
             " " to "/"  self-insert
             "0"  to "9"  self-insert
             ":"  to "~"  self-insert
             "C-?"  backward-delete-char

             Emacs Meta bindings

             "M-C-G"  abort
             "M-C-H"  backward-kill-word
             "M-C-I"  tab-insert
             "M-C-J"  vi-editing-mode
             "M-C-M"  vi-editing-mode
             "M-C-R"  revert-line
             "M-C-Y"  yank-nth-arg
             "M-C-["  complete
             "M-C-]"  character-search-backward
             "M-space"  set-mark
             "M-#"  insert-comment
             "M-&"  tilde-expand
             "M-*"  insert-completions
             "M--"  digit-argument
             "M-."  yank-last-arg
             "M-0"  digit-argument
             "M-1"  digit-argument
             "M-2"  digit-argument
             "M-3"  digit-argument
             "M-4"  digit-argument
             "M-5"  digit-argument
             "M-6"  digit-argument
             "M-7"  digit-argument
             "M-8"  digit-argument
             "M-9"  digit-argument
             "M-<"  beginning-of-history
             "M-="  possible-completions
             "M->"  end-of-history
             "M-?"  possible-completions
             "M-B"  backward-word
             "M-C"  capitalize-word
             "M-D"  kill-word
             "M-F"  forward-word
             "M-L"  downcase-word
             "M-N"  non-incremental-forward-search-history
             "M-P"  non-incremental-reverse-search-history
             "M-R"  revert-line
             "M-T"  transpose-words
             "M-U"  upcase-word
             "M-Y"  yank-pop
             "M-\"  delete-horizontal-space
             "M-~"  tilde-expand
             "M-C-?"  backward-kill-word
             "M-_"  yank-last-arg

             Emacs Control-X bindings

             "C-XC-G"  abort
             "C-XC-R"  re-read-init-file
             "C-XC-U"  undo
             "C-XC-X"  exchange-point-and-mark
             "C-X("  start-kbd-macro
             "C-X)"  end-kbd-macro
             "C-XE"  call-last-kbd-macro
             "C-XC-?"  backward-kill-line

   VI Mode bindings
             VI Insert Mode functions

             "C-D"  vi-eof-maybe
             "C-H"  backward-delete-char
             "C-I"  complete
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-["  vi-movement-mode
             "C-_"  undo
             " " to "~"  self-insert
             "C-?"  backward-delete-char

             VI Command Mode functions

             "C-D"  vi-eof-maybe
             "C-E"  emacs-editing-mode
             "C-G"  abort
             "C-H"  backward-char
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-K"  kill-line
             "C-L"  clear-screen
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-N"  next-history
             "C-P"  previous-history
             "C-Q"  quoted-insert
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-_"  vi-undo
             " "  forward-char
             "#"  insert-comment
             "$"  end-of-line
             "%"  vi-match
             "&"  vi-tilde-expand
             "*"  vi-complete
             "+"  next-history
             ","  vi-char-search
             "-"  previous-history
             "."  vi-redo
             "/"  vi-search
             "0"  beginning-of-line
             "1" to "9"  vi-arg-digit
             ";"  vi-char-search
             "="  vi-complete
             "?"  vi-search
             "A"  vi-append-eol
             "B"  vi-prev-word
             "C"  vi-change-to
             "D"  vi-delete-to
             "E"  vi-end-word
             "F"  vi-char-search
             "G"  vi-fetch-history
             "I"  vi-insert-beg
             "N"  vi-search-again
             "P"  vi-put
             "R"  vi-replace
             "S"  vi-subst
             "T"  vi-char-search
             "U"  revert-line
             "W"  vi-next-word
             "X"  backward-delete-char
             "Y"  vi-yank-to
             "\"  vi-complete
             "^"  vi-first-print
             "_"  vi-yank-arg
             "`"  vi-goto-mark
             "a"  vi-append-mode
             "b"  vi-prev-word
             "c"  vi-change-to
             "d"  vi-delete-to
             "e"  vi-end-word
             "f"  vi-char-search
             "h"  backward-char
             "i"  vi-insertion-mode
             "j"  next-history
             "k"  prev-history
             "l"  forward-char
             "m"  vi-set-mark
             "n"  vi-search-again
             "p"  vi-put
             "r"  vi-change-char
             "s"  vi-subst
             "t"  vi-char-search
             "u"  vi-undo
             "w"  vi-next-word
             "x"  vi-delete
             "y"  vi-yank-to
             "|"  vi-column
             "~"  vi-change-case

SEE ALSO
       The Gnu Readline Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu History Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       bash(1)

FILES
       ~/.inputrc
              Individual readline initialization file

AUTHORS
       Brian Fox, Free Software Foundation
       bfox@gnu.org

       Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve University
       chet.ramey@case.edu

BUG REPORTS
       If you find a bug in readline, you should report it.  But first, you should make sure that
       it really is a bug, and that it appears in the latest version of the readline library that
       you have.

       Once  you  have  determined  that  a  bug  actually exists, mail a bug report to bug-read‐
       line@gnu.org.  If you have a fix, you are welcome to mail that as well!   Suggestions  and
       `philosophical'  bug reports may be mailed to bug-readline@gnu.org or posted to the Usenet
       newsgroup gnu.bash.bug.

       Comments  and  bug  reports  concerning  this  manual   page   should   be   directed   to
       chet.ramey@case.edu.

BUGS
       It's too big and too slow.

GNU Readline 6.3                          2014 January 6                              READLINE(3)

Go-to-top  




Designed by SanjuD(@ngineerbabu)