SCREEN(1)                            General Commands Manual                            SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen  is  a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical terminal between sev‐
       eral processes (typically interactive shells).  Each virtual terminal provides  the  func‐
       tions  of  a  DEC  VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the  specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between  windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs continue to run when their window  is  cur‐
       rently not visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's ter‐
       minal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the  window  that  contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits. Shells usually distinguish between running as login-shell  or
       sub-shell.   Screen  runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise (See "shell" .screenrc

       Everything you type is sent to the program running in the current window.  The only excep‐
       tion  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window man‐
       ager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and
       is followed by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings can be
       fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although this notation is used
       in  this manual for readability.  Please use the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as
       arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The  standard  way  to  create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This creates a new window
       running a shell and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the  state  of  the
       process running in the current window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a cus‐
       tom command in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc  file  or
       at  the  "C-a  :" command line) and then using it just like the "C-a c" command.  In addi‐
       tion, new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not run another copy of
       screen,  but  will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the window manager
       (specified in the $STY environment variable) who will use it to  create  the  new  window.
       The  above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its window.
       - Note that you cannot transport environment variables from  the  invoking  shell  to  the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not
       from the invoking shell.

       If "/var/run/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be  written  to  this
       file for each window, and removed when the window is terminated.  This is useful for work‐
       ing with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that use
       the  utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your terminal, the
       terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".

       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly  selected  your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading,  you  should
       remember  this  one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a list of
       the available screen commands and their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the  sec‐
       tion "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents of
       your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last  position  on
       the  screen  to  be updated without scrolling the screen) consider using a version of your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal  update  of  the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100 style type and per‐
       fectly  suited for screen.  If all you've got is a "true" auto-margin terminal screen will
       be content to use it, but updating a character put into the last position  on  the  screen
       may  not  be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a safe posi‐
       tion in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with  insert-char‐
       acter capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include  all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap, even
            if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of  the  current  terminal.   By  default,
            screen  tries  to  restore its old window sizes when attaching to resizable terminals
            (those with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
            does not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has  the
            same  effect  as typing "C-a d" from screen's controlling terminal. -D is the equiva‐
            lent to the power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this option is ignored.
            In combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach  a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session if
               more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
               If  necessary  detach  and logout remotely first.  If it was not running create it
               and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status  of  your  sessions  by  means  of
            "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies  the  command character to be x and the character generating a literal com‐
            mand character to y (when typed after the command character).  The default  is  "C-a"
            and  `a',  which  can  be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this
            option sets the default command character. In a multiuser  session  all  users  added
            will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already running
            session, this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.   This
            option is equivalent to either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns  flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This can also be defined
            through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately  when
            flow-control  is  on.   See  the "defflow" .screenrc command for details.  The use of
            this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can  also  be  defined
            through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does  not  start screen, but prints a list of pid.tty.host strings and creation time‐
            stamps identifying your screen sessions.  Sessions marked `detached' can  be  resumed
            with  "screen  -r". Those marked `attached' are running and have a controlling termi‐
            nal. If the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions marked  as
            `unreachable'  either live on a different host or are `dead'.  An unreachable session
            is considered dead, when its name matches either the name of the local host,  or  the
            specified  parameter,  if  any.   See  the -r flag for a description how to construct
            matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked  and  removed.   Ask
            your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With "screen -m" creation of a
            new session is enforced, regardless whether screen  is  called  from  within  another
            screen  session  or  not. This flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach  to
               it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This  also  starts  screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a new process. The
               command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
            (only  affects  auto-margin  terminals  without  `LP').  This can also be set in your
            .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a specific window  or
            you want to send a command via the "-X" option to a specific window. As with screen's
            select command, "-" selects the blank window. As a special  case  for  reattach,  "="
            brings  up  the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a new window.
            The command will not be executed if the specified window could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the exit value  is  as
            follows: 9 indicates a directory without sessions. 10 indicates a directory with run‐
            ning but not attachable sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.
            In  combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates that there is no
            session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that there are  2  (or  more)  sessions  to
            resume  and  you  should specify which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no

       -Q   Some commands now can be queried from a remote session using this flag, e.g.  "screen
            -Q  windows".  The  commands  will  send  the  response to the stdout of the querying
            process. If there was an error in the command, then the querying  process  will  exit
            with a non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
            may be specified, though an optional prefix of [pid.]tty.host may be needed  to  dis‐
            tinguish  between multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to con‐
            nect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser  mode.  This  indicates
            that  screen  should  look  for  sessions  in another user's directory. This requires

       -R   resumes screen only when it's unambiguous which one to attach, usually when only  one
            screen  is  detached. Otherwise lists available sessions.  -RR attempts to resume the
            youngest (in terms of creation time) detached screen session it finds.   If  success‐
            ful,  all  other  command-line  options  are ignored.  If no detached session exists,
            starts a new session using the specified options, just as if -R had not  been  speci‐
            fied. The option is set by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen
            uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option see there.   Note:
            Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to the program specified, instead of the value in the environ‐
            ment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can also be defined through
            the "shell" .screenrc command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
            the session. This name identifies the session for  "screen  -list"  and  "screen  -r"
            actions. It substitutes the default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.)  for the default shell or specified program.  See also the
            "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment varible using the spcified term as opposed to  the  defualt
            setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8  mode.  This  option tells screen that your terminal sends and
            understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets the default encoding for new  win‐
            dows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
            as `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name  matches  either
            the  name  of  the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display  mode).   Screen  refuses  to
            attach  from  within  itself.   But  when  cascading  multiple screens, loops are not
            detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You may use the -S option  to
            specify  the  screen session if you have several screen sessions running. You can use
            the -d or -r option to tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen  ses‐
            sions. Note that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

       As  mentioned,  each  screen  command consists of a "C-a" followed by one other character.
       For your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound  to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-
       a c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION"  for
       a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '       (select)      Prompt for a window name or number to switch to.

       C-a "       (windowlist -b)
                                 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0       (select 0)
        …             …
       C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0 - 9, or to the blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus  to  the next region.  See also split,
                                 remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the window displayed previously.  Note that this bind‐
                                 ing  defaults to the command character typed twice, unless over‐
                                 ridden.  For instance, if you use the option "-e]x",  this  com‐
                                 mand becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a) to window. See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow the user to enter a name for the current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell and switch to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends  logging  of the current window to the file "screen‐

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle this windows login slot. Available only if screen is con‐
                                 figured to update the utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat the last message displayed in the message line.

       C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title) of the current window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a C-h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete all regions but the current one.  See also split, remove,

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting (turn the  current
                                 window's automatic margins on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S       (split)       Split  the  current  region horizontally into two new ones.  See
                                 also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current region.  See also split, only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend screen.  Your system must support BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.

       C-a \       (quit)        Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a C-]
       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the stdin queue of the
                                 current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows  where screen comes from, where it went to and why you can
                                 use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop monitoring the current window for inactivity.

       C-a |       (split -v)    Split the current region vertically into two new ones.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all currently attached displays.

       The "socket directory" defaults either to  $HOME/.screen  or  simply  to  /tmp/screens  or
       preferably  to /var/run/screen chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed setuid-root,
       then the administrator should compile screen with an adequate  (not  NFS  mounted)  socket
       directory.  If screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700 direc‐
       tory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files "/etc/screenrc"
       and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that
       can be overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches  for
       the  environment  variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be disabled at compile-
       time). The user specific screenrc file is searched  in  $SCREENRC,  then  $HOME/.screenrc.
       The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in these files are used to set options, bind functions to keys, and to automati‐
       cally establish one or more windows at the beginning of your screen session.  Commands are
       listed  one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated
       by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#' turns the rest
       of  the  line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintelligible lines are warned about and
       ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment  variables.  The  syntax  is  the
       shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no  variable  substitu‐
       tion shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from variable substi‐

       Two  configuration  files  are  shipped  as  examples  with  your   screen   distribution:
       "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number of useful examples for various

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode  type  `C-a  :'.  Note
       that  commands starting with "def" change default values, while others change current set‐

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be one  user  or  a  comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the equivalent of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user  with  restricted
       access,  use  the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter is supplied, it
       should be a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is  a  synonym  to  `acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is  a  comma  separated  list  of  commands  and/or windows (specified either by number or
       title). The special list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames con‐
       sists  of  a single `*', all known users are affected.  A command can be executed when the
       user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input to a window when he has its `w'  bit
       set  and  no  other  user  obtains  a writelock for this window.  Other bits are currently
       ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg  username  -w+w
       2'.   To  allow  read-only  access  to the session: `aclchg username -w "#"'. As soon as a
       user's name is known to screen he can attach to the session and  (per  default)  has  full
       permissions  for  all command and windows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at'
       and others should also be removed or the user may be  able  to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su" command).  `Chacl'
       is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently  attached,  all  the  user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users  that  share common access rights. The name of the group is the
       username of the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions  that  are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value "none"  is
       used  for  groupname.   If  the  second parameter is omitted all groups the user is in are

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits …. ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits …. ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be created by  the  caller
       of  the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If no
       users are specified, a list of all currently known users is assumed.  Bits is any combina‐
       tion  of  access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The special user‐
       name "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted to any window ini‐
       tially.   The  special  username  "??"  predefines the access that not yet known users are
       granted to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the
       "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means  of
       the  "activity"  command.   Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of
       the window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by  the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use of the
       "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window  change.   This  affects
       all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous setting of full/partial
       refresh for each window is restored with "allpartial off".  This is  a  global  flag  that
       immediately  takes  effect  on  all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual  terminals,  just  like  in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args … ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays or windows as if it had been entered there.  "At"
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the  first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple
       times. If the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is  matched
       against  user  names.   The  command  is  executed  once  for each display of the selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays.  Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'
       may be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or  nothing  appended  it  is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or `%'-character selects all users, displays or windows because  a  prefix-match  is  per‐
       formed.  Note that on the affected display(s) a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the  "at"  command,  not  for  the  owners  of  the
       affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment introducer when it is
       preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for
       the initiator of the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat:  When  matching against windows, the command is executed at least once per window.
       Commands that change the internal arrangement of windows  (like  "other")  may  be  called
       again.  In  shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached display. Beware,
       when issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that  a
       display  is  associated  with  the  target windows.  These commands may not work correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute  attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no
       modifier is given, the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES"  chapter  for  the
       syntax  of  the  modifier.  Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands for high-
       intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves  all  your  running
       programs  until they are resumed with a screen -r command.  When turned off, a hangup sig‐
       nal will terminate screen and all the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been  written
       to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args…
       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick  command with the numerical id id.  The output of such a command is
       used for substitution of the "%`" string escape. The specified lifespan is the  number  of
       seconds  the  output  is  considered valid. After this time, the command is run again if a
       corresponding string escape is encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers  an  auto‐
       matic  refresh  for  caption and hardstatus strings after the specified number of seconds.
       Only the last line of output is used for substitution.
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are  zero,  the  backtick  program  is
       expected to stay in the background and generate output once in a while.  In this case, the
       command is executed right away and screen stores the last line of output. If  a  new  line
       gets printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all characters cleared by an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will be displayed in  the  current  background  color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When  a  bell  character is sent to a background window, screen displays a notification in
       the message line.  The notification message can  be  re-defined  by  this  command.   Each
       occurrence  of  `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a bell has
       been sent, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the  definition  for  bell  in  your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress output of a message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one  or  more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to
       create a new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the  key bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a single charac‐
       ter, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed by an
       octal  number  (specifying  the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed by a
       second character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If
       no  further argument is given, any previously established binding for this key is removed.
       The command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound  for  the  specified
       class.  Use the "command" command to activate a class. Command classes can be used to cre‐
       ate multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows (so that the  com‐
       mand  usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be available as "C-a space"). The next three
       lines remove the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is  then  bound
       to  the  kill  command.  Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a window with a TELNET
       connection to foobar", and bind "escape" to the command that creates an  non-login  window
       with  a.k.a.  "root"  in  slot  #9, with a superuser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of  the  tables
       tells  screen  how  to react if a certain sequence of characters is encountered. There are
       three tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the  default
       actions  used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor movement.
       See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.
       If the -d option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes  the  copy  mode
       table  and  with  neither  option  the user table is selected.  The argument string is the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have two entries  in  the  translation  table.  You  can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.
       The  -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot turn off the tim‐
       ing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.  If cmd  is  omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make  "foo"  an  abbreviation  of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so that users can
       type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If  you  did  the  above
       "stuff  barfoo"  binding,  you  can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-Posix  systems  the
       time  interval  may  be  rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if a character device is
       attached to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").  The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate  the  screen  blanker.  First  the  screen  is  cleared. If no blanker program is
       defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is started and  it's  output  is
       written to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key
       is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an  empty  argument  is  given.
       Shows the currently set blanker program if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the  available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices.
       This command should affect the current window only.  But it  still  behaves  identical  to
       "defbreaktype". This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.  If  the  optional
       argument    to    the    "bufferfile"    command   is   omitted,   the   default   setting
       ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following example will  paste  the  system's
       password file into the screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input characters between 128
       and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed  by
       the  corresponding  7-bit  code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be
       changed with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only used
       if more than one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if  the  type  is
       set  to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all  escapes  from  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the  current  character  set slot designation and charset mapping.  The first four
       character of set are treated as charset designators while the fifth  and  sixth  character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be used to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set  is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument,  to your home directory (the value of the environment variable $HOME).  All win‐
       dows that are created by means of the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or by means
       of  "C-a : screen …" or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a chdir com‐
       mand, this would be the directory from which screen was invoked.  Hardcopy and  log  files
       are  always  written  to  the window's default directory, not the current directory of the
       process running in the window.  You can use this command multiple times in your  .screenrc
       to  start  various windows in different default directories, but the last chdir value will
       affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly modification  of  key
       bindings,  specific  window creation and changing settings. Note that the "set" keyword no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def…'.

       If  you  consider  this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard "C-a esc" (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character (^A). It is  proba‐
       bly  only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the specified com‐
       mand class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or  un-grabs  the  machines  console  output  to a window.  Note: Only the owner of
       /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is only available if  the  machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window and its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, C-h, or left arrow move the cursor left.
         j, C-n, or down arrow move the cursor down.
         k, C-p, or up arrow move the cursor up.
         l ('el') or right arrow move the cursor right.
         0 (zero) or C-a move to the leftmost column.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         H, M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center or bottom  line  of
           the window.
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         g or home moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         G or end moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
         ^ or $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or last non-whitespace character on the
         w, b, and e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         f/F, t/T move the cursor forward/backward to the next  occurence  of  the  target.  (eg,
           '3fy' will move the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)
         ; and , Repeat the last f/F/t/T command in the same/opposite direction.
         C-e and C-y scroll the display up/down by one line while preserving the cursor position.
         C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by the specified amount of lines while preserving
           the cursor position. (Default: half screen-full).
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.

           Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc  command.   (E.g.  markkeys
           "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There  is  no  simple method for a full emacs-style keymap, as this
           involves multi-character codes.

           The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between these marks will be
           highlighted. Press:
         space  or  enter  to  set the first or second mark respectively. If mousetrack is set to
           `on', marks can also be set using left mouse click.
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
         n Find next search pattern.
         N Find previous search pattern.
           There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does not allow one to
           yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does. Press:
         c  or  C to set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat count is given, both
           default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE  c  10  l  5  j  C

           This  moves  one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns left, marks the
           beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns  down,  sets  the
           right column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
         J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline character (012),
           lines glued seamless, lines separated by  a  single  whitespace  and  comma  separated
           lines.  Note that you can prepend the newline character with a carriage return charac‐
           ter, by issuing a "crlf on".
         v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the left margin  between
           column 9 and 1. Press
         a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the contents of the paste
           buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the  paste  buffer  to  the  screen-
           exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.
           This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [
           g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You  can  use  this  to
           adjust an already placed mark.
         C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set to `on',
       lines will be separated by the two character sequence `CR' -  `LF'.   Otherwise  (default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime debugging on or off. If screen has been compiled with option -DDEBUG debug‐
       ging available and is turned on per default. Note that this command only affects debugging
       output  from the main "SCREEN" process correctly. Debug output from attacher processes can
       only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal  capability  if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same  as  the bce command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini‐
       tial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred  methods  are  tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete
       screen session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate  long
       breaks.   Tcsendbreak  and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes (e.g. 4
       per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  differs  between  serial  board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape" except that  it  is
       useful  multiuser sessions only. In a multiuser session "escape" changes the command char‐
       acter of the calling user, where "defescape" changes the default  command  characters  for
       users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as the flow command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini‐
       tial setting is `auto'.  Specifying "defflow auto interrupt" is the same as  the  command-
       line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is set to status.  This command is  use‐
       ful to make the hardstatus of every window display the window number or title or the like.
       Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape
       character  is  '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misinterpretation
       of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the parameter status is omitted, the
       current  default  string  is displayed.  Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same  as  the log command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini‐
       tial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see config.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an octal number.
       When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting for displays is changed. Ini‐
       tial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal  capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.  Ini‐
       tial setting is `on' if screen was started with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as the wrap command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini‐
       tially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of
       "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal  and  put  it  into  the  back‐
       ground).   This  returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A detached screen can
       be resumed by  invoking  screen  with  the  -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS").  The -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features  like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing of all currently connected user front-ends (displays).  This is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following keys can be used in displays list:
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
         C-a or home Move to the first line.
         C-e or end Move to the last line.
         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         mouseclick Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack" is set to on.
         space Refresh the list
         d Detach that display
         D Power detach that display
         C-g, enter, or escape Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:

              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:
       (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.
       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.
       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.
       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device
       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode. The available modes are "nb", "NB",  "Z<",
       "Z>", and "BL".
       (F) Number of the window
       (G) Name/title of window
       (H) Whether the window is shared
       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:
             (1st character)
                ‘-’ : no read
                ‘r’ : read
                ‘R’ : read only due to foreign wlock
             (2nd character)
                ‘-’ : no write
                ‘.’ : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                ‘w’ : write
                ‘W’ : own wlock
             (3rd character)
                ‘-’ : no execute
                ‘x’ : execute

       "Displays"  needs  a  region  size of at least 10 characters wide and 5 characters high in
       order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next two  characters  typed  are
       looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the input stream.
       For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered  is  a  0  (zero),  screen will treat the following characters (up to three) as an
       octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one can
       create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user
       to generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified, a
       new  digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a zero value is
       provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active window
       to  the file ".termcap" in the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores
       its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical to the value
       of  the  environment  variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for each window. For ter‐
       minfo based systems you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then  compile  the
       entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'. Typically
       installed in a global /etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used  to  suppress  the  line
       feed.   See  also  "sleep".   Echo is also useful for online checking of environment vari‐

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding of the
       current  window. Each window can emulate a different encoding. The optional second parame‐
       ter overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen
       uses  the locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a terminal
       encoding depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR,  eucCN,  Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,  CP1251,  UTF-8,
       ISO8859-2,  ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6, ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9,
       ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new window.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating a  literal  command  character
       (by  triggering  the  "meta"  command)  to y (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is
       either a single character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-x"),  a
       backslash  followed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a
       backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 …]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args …]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and its  optional  argu‐
       ments)  in  the  current window. The flow of data between newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr,
       the process originally started in the window (let us call  it  "application-process")  and
       screen  itself  (window) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern
       is basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and stderr  of  newcom‐
       mand.  A  dot  (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.  An exclamation mark (!) causes
       the file descriptor to be connected to the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.
       User  input will go to newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' out‐
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|)  is  added  (as  a  fourth
       character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking  `exec'  without arguments shows name and arguments of the currently running sub‐
       process in this window. Only one subprocess a time can be running in each window.
       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect  it  instead  of  the  windows
       Refer  to the postscript file `doc/fdpat.ps' for a confusing illustration of all 21 possi‐
       ble combinations. Each drawing shows the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descrip‐
       tors  of  newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the application-process
       on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now  has  screen  at  its
       master side.

       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the command can be omitted. Trailing dots
       and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|'  is  synonymous  for  the
       pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec … /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh

       Creates  another shell in the same window, while the original shell is still running. Out‐
       put of both shells is displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty  command  operates  on  stdout,  then  add
       another `!'.

              exec !..| less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character `|' is needed to give the
       user control over the pager although it gets its input from  the  window's  process.  This
       works, because less listens on stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the
       `|') when its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably here;  good
       old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends  window  output to both, the user and the sed command. The sed inserts an additional
       bell character (oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.  This will cause  "Bell  in
       window x" messages, whenever the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the  window size to the size of the current region. This command is needed because
       screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if the window is  displayed  more  than

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters it cycles the current win‐
       dow's flow-control setting from "automatic" to "on"  to  "off".   See  the  discussion  on
       "FLOW-CONTROL"  later  on in this document for full details and note, that this is subject
       to change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic  way  so  that  the  top
       region  is selected after the bottom one. If no subcommand is given it defaults to `down'.
       `up' cycles in the opposite order, `top' and `bottom' go to  the  top  and  bottom  region
       respectively. Useful bindings are (j and k as in vi)
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This  forces  any currently selected region to be automatically resized at least a certain
       width and height. All other surrounding regions will be resized in order  to  accommodate.
       This constraint follows everytime the "focus" command is used. The "resize" command can be
       used to increase either dimension of a region, but never below what is set with "focusmin‐
       size".  The underscore `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and height of `0 0' (zero
       zero) will undo any constraints and allow for manual resizing.   Without  any  parameters,
       the minimum width and height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with the 8th bit
       set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character  with  the  8th
       bit stripped. The default (see also "defgr") is not to process GR switching because other‐
       wise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window  belongs  to.  Windows  can  be  moved  around
       between different groups by specifying the name of the destination group. Without specify‐
       ing a group, the title of the current group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no  filename  is  speci‐
       fied, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n is the number of the current window.
       This either appends or overwrites the file if it exists. See below.  If the option  -h  is
       specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If  set  to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the command "C-a
       h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset, hardcopys are dumped in
       screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line. The first
       form toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to display messages. If  the
       flag  is  set  to  `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display
       line. The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't  have  a  hardstatus  line
       (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs",  "ts", "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When
       "firstline/lastline" is used, screen will reserve the first/last line of the  display  for
       the  hardstatus. "message" uses screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never
       to display the  hardstatus.   If  you  prepend  the  word  "always"  to  the  type  (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The  third  form  specifies  the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is used as default
       string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via "ESC]0;^G"
       or  "ESC_ESC\")  is  displayed.   You  can  customize  this to any string you like
       including the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you  leave  out  the  argument
       string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set  the  display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument is given it tog‐
       gles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also specify a width if you want  to  change
       both  values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display size unchanged and just set
       the window size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen showing you  all  the  key  bindings.
       The first pages list all the internal commands followed by their current bindings.  Subse‐
       quent pages will display the custom commands, one  command  per  key.   Press  space  when
       you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are ignored.
       If the "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for the specified  command  class.
       See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For example
       csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive  way  of re-calling "the command that started …": You just type the first letter
       of that command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous  line  that  matches
       with  the `prompt character' to the left of the cursor. This line is pasted into this win‐
       dow's input queue.  Thus you have a crude command history (made up by the  visible  window
       and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a  command  that is run after the specified number of seconds inactivity is reached.
       This command will normally be the "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but it can
       be  any screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout of
       zero (or the special timeout off) disables the timer.  If no arguments are given, the cur‐
       rent settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to  ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is `off'. Without any
       options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses the message line to display some information about the  current  window:  the  cursor
       position  in  the form "(column,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width and height
       plus the size of the scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the  current  state
       of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

         +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
         -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
         +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
         -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The  current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not) is also shown. The
       flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when  the  window  is  in
       insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging, activity monitoring
       or partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the terminal
       character  sets  that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is
       in UTF-8 mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are displayed at the end of the  sta‐
       tus line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If  the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state, the info line is
       started with a string identifying the current state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.  Otherwise  the  process  (shell)
       running  in  the  window  receives a HANGUP condition, the window structure is removed and
       screen (your display) switches to another window.  When  the  last  window  is  destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep this command in mind, when killing a line.  It is recom‐
       mended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.  Useful if you're  typing  when  a
       message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal
       has a hardware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and  "msgminwait"  for  fine

       layout new [title]

       Create  a  new  layout.  The screen will change to one whole region and be switched to the
       blank window. From here, you build the regions and the windows they show  as  you  desire.
       The  new  layout will be numbered with the smallest available integer, starting with zero.
       You can optionally give a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it  will  have  a  default
       title  of  "layout".  You  can  always  change the title later by using the command layout

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the number or the title can
       be specified. Without either specification, screen will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be specified. Without either
       specification, screen will prompt and ask which screen is desired. To  see  which  layouts
       are available, use the layout show command.

       layout show

       List  on  the message line the number(s) and title(s) of the available layout(s). The cur‐
       rent layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given will be used to name the
       layout.  Without  any  options,  the  current title and number is displayed on the message

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout. An integer given will be used to  num‐
       ber the layout. Without any options, the current number and title is displayed on the mes‐
       sage line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach back to. The  default  is  :last,  which  tells
       screen  to  reattach  back  to the last used layout just before detachment. By supplying a
       title, You can instruct screen to reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was
       used  at  the  time  of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will be
       shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the current arrangement of regions. When used, screen will remember the  arrange‐
       ment  of  vertically  and  horizontally split regions. This arrangement is restored when a
       screen session is reattached or switched back from a different layout. If the session ends
       or  the  screen  process  dies,  the layout arrangements are lost. The layout dump command
       should help in this siutation. If a number or title is supplied, screen will remember  the
       arrangement  of that particular layout. Without any options, screen will remember the cur‐
       rent layout.

       Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the layout autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change or display the status of automatcally saving layouts. The default  is  on,  meaning
       when  screen  is detached or changed to a different layout, the arrangement of regions and
       windows will be remembered at the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave is
       set  to  off,  that  arrangement  will only be restored to either to the last manual save,
       using layout save, or to when the layout was first created, to a single region with a sin‐
       gle  window.  Without  either an on or off, the current status is displayed on the message

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is useful to recreate
       the  order  of  your  regions  used  in  your  current  layout. Only the current layout is
       recorded. While the order of the regions are recorded, the  sizes  of  those  regions  and
       which  windows  correspond  to  which  regions  are  not. If no filename is specified, the
       default is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen process was started in.  If
       the file already exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an example:

                   C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display  the  disclaimer  page.  This  is done whenever screen is started without options,
       which should be often enough. See also the "startup_message" command.


       Lock this display.  Call a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or  /usr/bin/lock  or  a
       builtin if no other is available). Screen does not accept any command keys until this pro‐
       gram terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the  windows  are  in
       the  `detached' state. The screenlock program may be changed through the environment vari‐
       able $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from which screen is started)  and  is  exe‐
       cuted with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password set on screen, the
       lock is void: One could easily re-attach from  an  unlocked  shell.  This  feature  should
       rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop  writing  output  of the current window to a file "screenlog.n" in the window's
       default directory, where n is the number of the  current  window.  This  filename  can  be
       changed with the `logfile' command. If no parameter is given, the state of logging is tog‐
       gled. The session log is appended to the previous contents  of  the  file  if  it  already
       exists.  The  current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are not included
       in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".  The  second  form
       changes  the  number of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the
       file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current window.  This controls
       if  the  window is `logged in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state of the window
       is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in'  and  a  `log
       out'  key.  E.g.  `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be C-a I
       and C-a O.  The default setting (in config.h.in) should be "on" for  a  screen  that  runs
       under  suid-root.   Use  the  "deflogin" command to change the default login state for new
       windows. Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps  are  turned
       "on", screen adds a string containing the current time to the logfile after two minutes of
       inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second
       time-stamp  is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can change this timeout
       with the second form of the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen that the next input character should only be looked up in the default bindkey
       table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of timeout ms. The
       default  timeout  is  300ms.  Maptimeout with no arguments shows the current setting.  See
       also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string is made up
       of  oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will
       change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).   This
       happens  to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E"
       would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal  sends  characters,  that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to do
       nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want  to  use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys
       can be assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing windows.
       The number can be increased only when there are no existing windows.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on and an affected win‐
       dow is switched into the background, you will receive the activity notification message in
       the status line at the first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'
       in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This command determines whether screen will watch for mouse clicks. When this  command  is
       enabled,  regions that have been split in various ways can be selected by pointing to them
       with a mouse and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off, the  current  state  is
       displayed. The default state is determined by the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is currently displayed.  The
       default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by other activity.  The
       default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch  between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation is singleuser. In
       multiuser mode the commands `acladd', `aclchg', `aclgrp'  and  `acldel'  can  be  used  to
       enable (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes  the  kind  of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar with the game
       "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style messages which will often blur the facts a lit‐
       tle,  but  are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK  flag  defined.  The
       default setting is then determined by the presence of the environment variable $NETHACKOP‐
       TIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through the  list
       of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell  screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to accept output. This
       can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem  connection  gets  cut  but  no  hangup  is
       received. If nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits until the display restarts
       to accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on  is
       treated  as  1s). If the display still doesn't receive characters, screen will consider it
       "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If at some time it restarts to accept charac‐
       ters, screen will unblock the display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change  the current window's number. If the given number n is already used by another win‐
       dow, both windows exchange their numbers. If no argument is specified, the current  window
       number (and title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the rela‐
       tive amount specified.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no more  data  will  be
       read  from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm),
       you can set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the current  setting  is


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to the window displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist, other has
       the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching to the
       current  window.  This command only affects the current window.  To immediately affect all
       windows use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is  fixed,
       as there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present  a  crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask for it, whenever
       someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful if you have privileged programs run‐
       ning  under  screen and you want to protect your session from reattach attempts by another
       user masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is  specified,
       screen  prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryption in the paste buffer.
       Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to the  stdin  queue  of  the
       current  window. The register '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given
       the user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled  with
       the  copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the register,
       readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second argument,  the  contents  of
       the specified registers is pasted into the named destination register rather than the win‐
       dow. If '.' is used as the second argument, the displays paste buffer is the  destination.
       Note,  that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a second argument is speci‐
       fied no current window is needed. When the source specification  only  contains  registers
       (not  the  paste  buffer) then there need not be a current display (terminal attached), as
       the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not to do  so.
       This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


       Power  detach.   Mainly  the  same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP signal to the parent
       process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when screen  was  started  from
       your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The  message  specified  here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed. It may be
       used as a replacement for a logout message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.


       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capabilities "po/pf" if it
       detects  an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe the output into cmd.  This should nor‐
       mally be a command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command dis‐
       plays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.
       Warning:  Be  careful with this command! If other user have write access to your terminal,
       they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue. If no argument  is
       given  you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed in
       from the user's keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions  to  a  single


       Kill  all  windows  and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals the keys C-4
       and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to  type
       C-a  C-4  when  selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You can tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file  via  the -e option.  If no file is specified, the screen-exchange
       filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or one arguments it it
       duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or entered at the prompt.
       With two arguments it reads the contents of the named file  into  the  register,  just  as
       readbuf  reads  the  screen-exchange  file into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example  will  paste  the  system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save  the  specified string to the register key.  The encoding of the string can be speci‐
       fied via the -e option.  See also the "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and "readbuf".

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so attr [color]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor or bell flags set in
       caption  or  hardstatus  or windowlist. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of
       the modifiers.  The default for monitor is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for bell
       "=ub " (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for silence.


       Reset  the  virtual  terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when strange settings (like
       scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.


       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or added to the region below  or
       if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T ),  the  all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h ) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns  output  logging  on  for
       this window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number
       n is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the  next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments) is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is created.  If  //group  is  sup‐
       plied, a container-type window is created in which other windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen  creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write
       a  logfile  ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of
       screen no additional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in your
       ".screenrc" file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".   See  also  chapter  "WINDOW

       scrollback num

       Set  the  size  of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num lines. The default
       scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscrollback" command and use "info" to view  the
       current  setting.  To access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use the "copy"

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be  a  prefix  of  a  window  title
       (alphanumeric  window name) or a window number.  The parameter is optional and if omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "select 0".
       The number of windows is limited at compile-time by  the  MAXWIN  configuration  parameter
       (which  defaults  to 40).  There are two special WindowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank
       window and "." selects the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's "-X"

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that  for "screen -list" the name shows up with the
       process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omitted, the name of this session is  dis‐
       played.  Caution:  The  $STY environment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-
       existing shells. This may result in confusion. Use of this command is  generally  discour‐
       aged.  Use the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a new session.  The default is
       constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be  prompted  to enter a value.  If no parameters are specified, the user will be prompted
       for both variable and value. The environment  is  inherited  by  all  subsequently  forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally  screen  uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If setsid is
       turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group  as
       the  screen  backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the value of  the  envi‐
       ronment  variable  $SHELL.   This  is  useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which is
       expecting to execute the program specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins  with  a  '-'
       character, the shell will be started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only minimal ini‐
       tialization when not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read  your  "~/.bashrc"
       unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title  for  all  shells  created  during startup or by the C-A C-c command.  For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an  affected  window
       is  switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in the
       status line after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout  can  be
       changed  with  the  `silencewait'  command or by specifying a number of seconds instead of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows monitored for silence should  wait  before  displaying  a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command  will  pause  the  execution  of a .screenrc file for num seconds.  Keyboard
       activity will end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read  the  messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a ]")
       command.  If the slowpaste value is  nonzero  text  is  written  character  by  character.
       screen  will  make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write to allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read  and  execute  commands  from  file  file. Source commands may be nested to a maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source  command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split [-v]

       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room for the new region. The blank window is displayed on the new region. Splits are  made
       horizontally  unless -v is used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete regions.
       Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is  `on',  as
       you probably noticed.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the  input buffer of the current window.  This is like the
       "paste" command but with much less overhead.  Without a parameter, screen will prompt  for
       a  string  to  stuff.  You cannot paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most
       useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If  passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first
       password is matched against the systems passwd database, the second  password  is  matched
       against  the screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may be
       useful for the screen administrator to test multiuser  setups.   When  the  identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.  These are "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended.  This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In  each  window's  environment  screen  opens,  the  $TERM variable is set to "screen" by
       default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed in the local termcap  or  ter‐
       minfo  data  base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is
       VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default  pur‐
       pose.   That  is, one may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the next
       "screen rlogin othermachine" command. Use the command "screen  -T  vt100  rlogin  otherma‐
       chine" rather than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command  to  modify your terminal's termcap entry without going through all the
       hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can  optionally  customize
       the  termcap  generated  for  the windows.  You have to place these commands in one of the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If your system works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,  screen  will  under‐
       stand  the  `terminfo'  command, which has the same effects as the `termcap' command.  Two
       separate commands are provided, as there  are  subtle  syntactic  differences,  e.g.  when
       parameter  interpolation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabili‐
       ties have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you  can
       use the command `termcapinfo', which is just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `ter‐
       minfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can  specify  multiple  terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or  more  termcap  defines  (separated  by  `:'s)  to  be
       inserted  at the start of the appropriate termcap entry, enhancing it or overriding exist‐
       ing values.  The first tweak modifies your terminal's termcap,  and  contains  definitions
       that your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the  window  termcaps,  and
       should contain definitions that screen understands (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs  screen  that  all  terminals  that begin with `xterm' have firm auto-margins that
       allow the last position on the screen to be updated (LP), but they  don't  really  have  a
       status  line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for all
       terminal names that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap  command  for
       that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP' capability for all terminals that begin with `vt', and
       the second line will also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0)  and  back  out  of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key  labels  to  each  window's
       termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes  a  h19  or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables the insert mode
       (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so  it
       is  part  of  the  string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions put into your terminal's
       termcap will cause screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert  capability  in
       each  window's  termcap.   Each  window will also get the delete-character capability (dc)
       added to its termcap, which screen will translate into  a  line-update  for  the  terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL"
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line  to display the time of day, the host name, and the load averages
       over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on  your  system).   For  window  specific
       information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.


       Unbind  all  the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely for its detaching
       abilities, such as when letting a console application run as a daemon. If, for  some  rea‐
       son, it is necessary to bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change  the  encoding  used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the strings sent to
       the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles  the  set‐
       ting.  If a second parameter is given, the display's encoding is also changed (this should
       rather be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the  default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the setting.
       If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does not support a visual bell,  a  `vbell-mes‐
       sage'  is  displayed  in the status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a  bell  character  (^G), vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not support a visual
       bell.  The default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window  is  created  (or
       resurrected  from zombie state). Default is off.  Without a parameter, the current setting
       is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols columns if  an  argu‐
       ment  is  specified.   This  requires  a capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0" and
       "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a  new  height
       if  you  want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If screen  was  in  a  window
       group,  screen  will back out of the group and then display the windows in that group.  If
       the -b option is given, screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the list,
       so  that  the  current  window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order of the
       windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal  most-recently-used
       list.  The -g option will show the windows inside any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
         C-g or escape Exit windowlist.
         C-a or home Move to the first line.
         C-e or end Move to the last line.
         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         0..9 Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
         mouseclick Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack" is set to "on"
         / Search.
         n Repeat search in the forward direction.
         N Repeat search in the backward direction.
         m Toggle MRU.
         g Toggle group nesting.
         a All window view.
         C-h or backspace Back out the group.
         , Switch numbers with the previous window.
         . Switch numbers with the next window.
         K Kill that window.
         space or enter Select that window.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the title is displayed
       as table heading, while the lines are made by using the string setting. The  default  set‐
       ting  is  "Num Name%=Flags" for the title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING
       ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6 characters  high  in
       order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each window is listed by num‐
       ber with the name of process that has been started in the window (or its title); the  cur‐
       rent  window  is marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all the win‐
       dows that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that has  received  a
       bell  is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being monitored and has had activ‐
       ity occur is marked with an `@'; a window which has output logging  turned  on  is  marked
       with  `(L)';  windows  occupied  by other users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie
       state are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's status  line
       only  the  portion  around the current window is displayed.  The optional string parameter
       follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.  If string parameter is passed, the  output  size  is
       unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is on, the second con‐
       secutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start of
       the  following  line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left
       margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of  wrap  is

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents  of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the public accessible
       screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive  means  of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer is recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename  can  be  set  with  the
       bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the  user  who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window,
       other users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current  window
       is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock on"
       he keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.


       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different modes when it detects a
       zmodem  request:  "pass" and "catch".  If the mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all
       data to the attacher until the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen
       acts  as a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is set
       to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line),  otherwise
       it will use "pass".
       You  can  define  the  templates  screen uses in "catch" mode via the second and the third
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell)  exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead'
       windows will remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove  such  a  window.
       Pressing  the  first  key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the second
       key, screen will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was  initially  running
       in  the  window  will  be launched again. Calling zombie without parameters will clear the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all windows, this command should only be
       called defzombie. Until we need this as a per window setting, the commands zombie and def‐
       zombie are synonymous.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after the keys. This will cause screen to  moni‐
       tor exit status of the process running in the window. If it exits normally ('0'), the win‐
       dow disappears. Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell) exits. If zombie keys are defined (compare with above zombie command), it is
       possible to also set a timeout when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead  screen

       Screen  displays  informational  messages  and other diagnostics in a message line.  While
       this line is distributed to appear at the bottom of the  screen,  it  can  be  defined  to
       appear  at  the  top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has a status line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of  the  current  screen  will  be  temporarily overwritten and output will be momentarily
       interrupted. The message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay,  but  it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message  line facility can be used by an application running in the current window by
       means of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the  shell,
       try something like:

              echo '^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'\\'

       where  '' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns into a single back‐

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command defines which type of window is created. The different window types are  all  spe‐
       cial  cases  of  the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen to be used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       ·  The normal window contains a shell (default, if no parameter is  given)  or  any  other
          system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc…)

       ·  If  a  tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is specified as the first
          parameter, then the window is directly connected to this device.  This window  type  is
          similar  to  "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the device
          node, an exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line  as  busy.
          An  optional  parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags in the
          notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well  as  receive

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You  may  want  to  specify as many of these options as applicable. Unspecified options
          cause the terminal driver to make up the parameter values  of  the  connection.   These
          values are system dependent and may be in defaults or values saved from a previous con‐

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in  the  status
          line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
          available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
          of  the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name preceded
          by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
          supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL  status  bit is true, the whole set of modem signals is placed inside
          curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals  `CTS'
          or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For  tty  windows,  the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD) to go low
          for a specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break  signal  on
          the  other  side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a break is

       ·  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second parameter is expected  to  be  a  host
          name,  and  an  optional third parameter may specify a TCP port number (default decimal
          23).  Screen will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use  the  telnet
          protocol to communicate with that server.
          For  telnet  windows,  the  command  info  shows details about the connection in square
          brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

          t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the remote  host.   Screen  sends
                 the name "screen" unless instructed otherwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW.  The  remote  host  will  send flow control information.  (Ignored at the

          Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

          For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243)  to
          the remote host.

          This  window  type  is  only  available  if screen was compiled with the BUILTIN_TELNET
          option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the current time into  mes‐
       sages  or file names. The escape character is '%' with one exception: inside of a window's
       hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the  current  window;  with
              '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape inside the part expands
              to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
              pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
              the number as absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the last abso‐
              lute  pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad relative to the right margin
              by using '-'. The padding truncates the  string  if  the  specified  position  lies
              before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text  position for the next truncation. When screen needs to do
              truncation, it tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved  to  the
              specified  percentage  of  the output area. (The area starts from the last absolute
              pad position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.)  The
              'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '…'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length qualifier is misused
              to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use  zero  instead  of
       space  as  fill  character. The '0' qualifier also makes the '=' escape use absolute posi‐
       tions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can
       be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if 'L'
       is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the color settings. Its
       format  is "[attribute modifier] [color description]". The attribute modifier must be pre‐
       fixed by a change type indicator if it can be confused with a color description. The  fol‐
       lowing change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of the
       following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or  two  letters  specifying  the  desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or background  color  depen‐
       dent  on  the  current attributes: if reverse mode is set, the background color is changed
       instead of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with a ".".  If
       you want the same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were set before the last
       change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
              width. The current window is displayed white on blue.  This can be used with "hard‐
              status alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
              red background if this is the active focus. Useful for "caption string".

       Each  window  has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the XON and
       XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is  turned  off,
       screen ignores the XON and XOFF characters, which allows the user to send them to the cur‐
       rent program by simply typing them (useful for  the  emacs  editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that  it  will  take  longer for output from a "normal" program to pause in
       response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF  characters  are  used  to
       immediately  pause  the output of the current window.  You can still send these characters
       to the current program, but you must use the  appropriate  two-character  screen  commands
       (typically  "C-a  q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also useful for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with either the -f option or  the  "def‐
       flow"  .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic flow-switching.  It
       can then be toggled between the three states  'fixed  on',  'fixed  off'  and  'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic  flow-switching  mode  deals with flow control using the TIOCPKT mode (like
       "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find  out  the
       right  mode  based  on the current setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled,
       flow-control is turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate  flow-con‐
       trol manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the interrupt key (usu‐
       ally C-c) does not interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines  have  scrolled  by,  try
       running screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command
       in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has  accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that the
       virtual terminal's memory contains the non-flushed version of the output,  which  in  rare
       cases  can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the  version  of  the  output  you
       would  have  gotten  without "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need to turn off flow-
       control (or use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a  program  that
       expects  you  to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If
       this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode
       a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with the "windows" com‐
       mand  (C-a  w)) by setting it with one of the title commands.  Normally the name displayed
       is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes
       useful  to  distinguish various programs of the same name or to change the name on-the-fly
       to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the  "shelltitle"  command  in  the
       .screenrc  file,  while all other windows are created with a "screen" command and thus can
       have their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string  escape-
       sequence  (kname\)  and  the  "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be output
       from an application to control the window's name under software control,  and  the  latter
       will  prompt  for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys with the
       "title" command to set things quickly without prompting.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled  by  setting  the  window's
       name  to "search|name" and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a part
       of your prompt.  The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search  string,  while  the
       name  portion  specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a `:'
       screen will add what it believes to be the current command running in the  window  to  the
       end  of  the  window's  shell  name (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current command name
       supersedes the shell name while it is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to  output  a  null  title-escape-
       sequence  (k\)  as  a part of your prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be
       the same as the string you specified for the search portion of the title.   Once  this  is
       set  up,  screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name and
       get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is  made  for  the  end  of  the  prompt.  If found, it will grab the first word after the
       matched string and use it as the command name.  If the command  name  begins  with  either
       '!',  '%', or '^' screen will use the first word on the following line (if found) in pref‐
       erence to the just-found name.  This helps csh users get better command names  when  using
       job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this  line  to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the "top" command in
       window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The title specified  is  an
       auto-title  that  would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something like the

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The window status  would  show  the  name
       "trn" while the command was running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a R" to the "su" com‐
       mand and give it an auto-title name of "root:".  For this auto-title to work,  the  screen
       could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previously entered "emacs"
       command.  The window status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of  the  command,
       and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title. when you
       type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an auto-title's  current  setting  (C-a  E).
       The third binding would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is that
       some shells (like the csh) count all the non-control characters as part  of  the  prompt's
       length.   If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab
       will result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a  prompt  like

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "[0000m"  not only normalizes the character attributes, but all
       the zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will  probably
       want to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each  window  in  a  screen  session  emulates a VT100 terminal, with some extra functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard  as  possible.  But  if
       your  terminal  lacks  certain  capabilities,  the emulation may not be complete. In these
       cases screen has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing.  This  is
       no problem on machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to cus‐
       tomize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your  machine  supports  only  terminfo  this
       method  fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how
       it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks  for  an  entry
       named  "screen.",  where   is the contents of your $TERM variable.  If no such
       entry exists, screen tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide  (132  cols  or
       more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The  idea  is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important feature (e.g.
       delete char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen  (named
       "screen.")  in  which  this  capability  has  been  disabled.  If  this entry is
       installed on your machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep  the  correct  term‐
       cap/terminfo  entry.   The  terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of all new windows.
       Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the capabilities of the virtual terminal
       emulated.  Notice that, however, on machines using the terminfo database this variable has
       no effect.  Furthermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each window.

       The actual set of capabilities supported by the virtual terminal depends on the  capabili‐
       ties supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical terminal does not
       support underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the  win‐
       dow's  $TERMCAP  variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabilities must be
       supported by a terminal in order to run screen; namely scrolling, clear screen, and direct
       cursor  addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals
       that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the "termcap" .screenrc
       command,  or  by  defining  the  variable $SCREENCAP prior to startup.  When the is latter
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either  be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen" (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system uses  the  terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This  allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set
       or national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are  supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set  is
       designated  as  G0  through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the  terminal  uses  to
       enable  and  start  the  graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding
       replacement for SO. `C0' gives a character by character translation string  that  is  used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When  the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's termcap entry, applica‐
       tions running in a screen window can send output to the  printer  port  of  the  terminal.
       This  allows  a user to have an application in one window sending output to a printer con‐
       nected to the terminal, while all other windows are still  active  (the  printer  port  is
       enabled  and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect, programs running
       in different windows can send output to the printer  simultaneously.   Data  sent  to  the
       printer  is not displayed in the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN'
       while the printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets selected,  the  dis‐
       play's  hardstatus  will  be updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line  can  be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command (APC): "ESC_ESC\".
       As a convenience for xterm users the sequence "ESC]0..2;^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if  they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line  itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen  .screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The  following is a list of control sequences recognized by screen.  "(V)" and "(A)" indi‐
       cate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string directly to  the  host
                                  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if multi-user support
                                  is compiled into screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used  to
                                  check the access control list. Use "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to
                                  create a user with no rights and allow  only  the  needed  com‐

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;…; Ps m          Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black

                  …               …

                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;…; Ps h          Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;…; Ps l          Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize  the window to `Ph' lines and `Pw' columns (SunView spe‐

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence  of  characters
       in  the  input  stream  was  generated by a keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the
       VT100 style escape sequence. Screen has a very flexible way of doing  this  by  making  it
       possible  to  map  arbitrary  commands  on arbitrary sequences of characters. For standard
       VT100 emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the  window
       (see  also command stuff in the command table).  Because the sequences generated by a key‐
       press can change after a reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible  to  bind
       commands  to  the  termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct binding after
       each reattach. See the bindkey command for further details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the command is  executed  if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)

       The  following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen and
       are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You  can  place  these  capabilities  in  your  termcap
       entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `term‐
       capinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these  capabilities  in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
                    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width  and  height  as  argu‐
                    ments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
                    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See  the  'ac'  capability
                    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' command for valid encod‐

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI  conform  way.  This  capability
                    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe  a  translation  of  characters  to strings depending on the current
                    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).

       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending  on
       the  current  font  and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work with a common
       standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals  that  scatter  the  more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.