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UFW FRAMEWORK(8)                            April 2014                           UFW FRAMEWORK(8)

NAME
       ufw-framework - using the ufw framework

DESCRIPTION
       ufw  provides both a command line interface and a framework for managing a netfilter fire‐
       wall. While the ufw command provides an easy to use interface for managing a firewall, the
       ufw  framework  provides  the  administrator methods to customize default behavior and add
       rules not supported by the command line tool. In this way, ufw can take full advantage  of
       Linux netfilter's power and flexibility.

OVERVIEW
       The  framework  provides  boot time initialization, rules files for adding custom rules, a
       method for loading netfilter modules, configuration of kernel parameters and configuration
       of IPv6. The framework consists of the following files:

       /lib/ufw/ufw-init
              initialization script

       /etc/ufw/before.init
              initialization customization script run before ufw is initialized

       /etc/ufw/after.init
              initialization customization script run after ufw is initialized

       /etc/ufw/before[6].rules
              rules file containing rules evaluated before UI added rules

       /etc/user[6].rules
              rules file containing UI added rules (managed with the ufw command)

       /etc/ufw/after[6].rules
              rules file containing rules evaluated after UI added rules

       /etc/default/ufw
              high level configuration

       /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf
              kernel network tunables

       /etc/ufw/ufw.conf
              additional high level configuration

BOOT INITIALIZATION
       ufw  is  started  on  boot  with  /lib/ufw/ufw-init.  This script is a standard SysV style
       initscript used by the ufw command and should not be modified.  The  /etc/before.init  and
       /etc/after.init  scripts may be used to perform any additional firewall configuration that
       is not yet supported in ufw itself and if they exist and  are  executable,  ufw-init  will
       execute  these scripts. ufw-init will exit with error if either of these scripts exit with
       error. ufw-init supports the following arguments:

       start: loads the firewall

       stop:  unloads the firewall

       restart:
              reloads the firewall

       force-reload:
              same as restart

       status:
              basic status of the firewall

       force-stop:
              same as stop, except does not check if the firewall is already loaded

       flush-all:
              flushes the built-in chains, deletes all non-built-in chains and resets the  policy
              to ACCEPT

       ufw-init  will call before.init and after.init with start, stop, status and flush-all, but
       typically, if used, these scripts need only implement start and stop.

       ufw uses many user-defined chains in addition to the built-in  iptables  chains.  If  MAN‐
       AGE_BUILTINS  in  /etc/default/ufw is set to 'yes', on stop and reload the built-in chains
       are flushed. If it is set to 'no', on stop and reload the ufw secondary chains are removed
       and  the  ufw primary chains are flushed. In addition to flushing the ufw specific chains,
       it keeps the primary chains in the same order  with  respect  to  any  other  user-defined
       chains  that  may have been added. This allows for ufw to interoperate with other software
       that may manage their own firewall rules.

       To ensure your firewall is loading on boot, you must integrate this script into  the  boot
       process.  Consult your distribution's documentation for the proper way to modify your boot
       process if ufw is not already integrated.

RULES FILES
       ufw  is  in  part  a  front-end  for   iptables-restore,   with   its   rules   saved   in
       /etc/ufw/before.rules,  /etc/ufw/after.rules  and /etc/user.rules. Administrators can cus‐
       tomize before.rules and after.rules as desired using the standard iptables-restore syntax.
       Rules are evaluated as follows: before.rules first, user.rules next, and after.rules last.
       IPv6 rules are evaluated in the same  way,  with  the  rules  files  named  before6.rules,
       user6.rules  and after6.rules. Please note that ufw status only shows rules added with ufw
       and not the rules found in the /etc/ufw rules files.

       Important: ufw only uses the *filter table by default. You may add any other  tables  such
       as  *nat,  *raw and *mangle as desired. For each table a corresponding COMMIT statement is
       required.

       After modifying any of these files, you must reload ufw for the rules to take effect.  See
       the EXAMPLES section for common uses of these rules files.

MODULES
       Netfilter  has  many different connection tracking modules. These modules are aware of the
       underlying protocol and allow the administrator to simplify his or her rule sets. You  can
       adjust  which netfilter modules to load by adjusting IPT_MODULES in /etc/default/ufw. Some
       popular modules to load are:

         nf_conntrack_ftp
         nf_nat_ftp
         nf_conntrack_irc
         nf_nat_irc
         nf_conntrack_netbios_ns
         nf_conntrack_pptp
         nf_conntrack_tftp
         nf_nat_tftp

KERNEL PARAMETERS
       ufw  will  read  in  /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf  on  boot  when  enabled.   Please   note   that
       /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf    overrides    values    in    the   system   systcl.conf   (usually
       /etc/sysctl.conf). Administrators can change the file used by modifying /etc/default/ufw.

IPV6
       IPv6 is enabled by default. When disabled, all incoming, outgoing  and  forwarded  packets
       are  dropped,  with  the  exception  of traffic on the loopback interface.  To adjust this
       behavior, set IPV6 to 'yes' in /etc/default/ufw. See the ufw manual page for details.

EXAMPLES
       As mentioned, ufw loads its rules files into the kernel by using the iptables-restore  and
       ip6tables-restore  commands.  Users  wanting  to add rules to the ufw rules files manually
       must be familiar with these as well as the iptables and ip6tables commands. Below are some
       common  examples  of  using  the  ufw rules files.  All examples assume IPv4 only and that
       DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY in /etc/default/ufw is set to DROP.

   IP Masquerading
       To allow IP masquerading for computers from the 10.0.0.0/8 network on eth1  to  share  the
       single IP address on eth0:

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
               net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       If  your firewall is using IPv6 tunnels or 6to4 and is also doing NAT, then you should not
       usually masquerade protocol '41' (ipv6)  packets.  For  example,  instead  of  the  above,
       /etc/ufw/before.rules can be adjusted to have:
               *nat
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 --protocol ! 41 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       Add the ufw route to allow the traffic:
               ufw route allow in on eth1 out on eth0 from 10.0.0.0/8

   Port Redirections
       To forward tcp port 80 on eth0 to go to the webserver at 10.0.0.2:

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
               net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \
                 --to-destination 10.0.0.2:80
               COMMIT

       Add the ufw route rule to allow the traffic:
               ufw route allow in on eth0 to 10.0.0.2 port 80 proto tcp

   Egress filtering
       To block RFC1918 addresses going out of eth0:

       Add the ufw route rules to reject the traffic:
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 10.0.0.0/8
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 172.16.0.0/12
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 192.168.0.0/16

   Full example
       This example combines the other examples and demonstrates a simple routing firewall. Warn‐
       ing: this setup is only an example to demonstrate the functionality of the  ufw  framework
       in  a concise and simple manner and should not be used in production without understanding
       what each part does and does not do. Your firewall will undoubtedly want to be less open.

       This router/firewall has two interfaces: eth0 (Internet facing) and eth1  (internal  LAN).
       Internal clients have addresses on the 10.0.0.0/8 network and should be able to connect to
       anywhere on the Internet. Connections to port 80 from the Internet should be forwarded  to
       10.0.0.2.  Access  to ssh port 22 from the administrative workstation (10.0.0.100) to this
       machine should be allowed. Also make sure no internal traffic goes to the Internet.

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
                net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \
                 --to-destination 10.0.0.2:80
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       Add the necessary ufw rules:
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 10.0.0.0/8
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 172.16.0.0/12
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 192.168.0.0/16
               ufw route allow in on eth1 out on eth0 from 10.0.0.0/8
               ufw route allow in on eth0 to 10.0.0.2 port 80 proto tcp
               ufw allow in on eth1 from 10.0.0.100 to any port 22 proto tcp

NOTES
       When using ufw with libvirt and bridging, packets may be blocked. The libvirt team  recom‐
       mends that the following sysctl's be set to disable netfilter on the bridge:

         net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 0
         net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 0
         net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 0

       Note  that  the bridge module must be loaded in to the kernel before these values are set.
       One way to ensure this works properly with ufw  is  to  add  'bridge'  to  IPT_MODULES  in
       /etc/default/ufw, and then add the above rules to /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf.

       Alternatively  to  disabling  netfilter on the bridge, you can configure iptables to allow
       all traffic to be forwarded across the bridge. Eg, add to /etc/ufw/before.rules within the
       *filter section:

         -I FORWARD -m physdev --physdev-is-bridged -j ACCEPT

SEE ALSO
       ufw(8),  iptables(8),  ip6tables(8), iptables-restore(8), ip6tables-restore(8), sysctl(8),
       sysctl.conf(5)

AUTHOR
       ufw is Copyright 2008-2014, Canonical Ltd.

       ufw and this manual page was originally written by Jamie Strandboge 

April 2014                                                                       UFW FRAMEWORK(8)

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